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On the reform of the pension insurance system in China

Author: YuWu From: www.yourpaper.net Posted: 2010-07-08 23:21:08 Read:
China's old-age social insurance system change

1, China's old-age social insurance system was established
The establishment and improvement of the pension insurance system is an important symbol of the human civilization and social progress and results. Labor Insurance Regulations of the People's Republic of China "the original Government Administration Council announced in 1951, marking the establishment of the old-age insurance system for enterprise employees in China. However, after more than thirty years, due to the factors of the national economic system, China is now closing the pay-pension insurance system does not change, until the start of the 1984 China's urban the Economic Restructuring barrier surface.

2, the initial reform of old-age social insurance system
In 1984, China's urban economy Hugh reform started defects revealed in the unfolding process of market-oriented reform of state-owned enterprises, the traditional old-age social insurance system. Update the workforce with the enterprise, the enterprise retirees a sudden increase in the rapid growth of corporate pension burden, due to the substantial business insurance, the the uneven burden contradiction between enterprises is very prominent. Traditional old-age social insurance system first began in the 1980s to restore the basic functions of the old-age social insurance pension social pooling 77 document issued by the State Council in 1986, the establishment of pensions for state-owned enterprises on the municipal level hierarchy of social pooling mechanism. Social co-ordination mechanism, the transfer of pension funds by the young population structure of state-owned enterprises to the aging of the population structure of state-owned enterprises, in fact, constitute a reinsurance mechanism of the traditional old-age social insurance system. The traditional old-age social insurance system of payments crisis in part on the enterprise level co-ordination mechanism is set in such a society in a certain period of time to solve. In 1990, the Ministry of Labor began the pilot reform of pension social insurance pensions are calculated and paid, asked the old-age social insurance basic pension consists of two parts: a certain percentage of the average wage of the local community in the first part of the Employee Retirement total fat; first two parts worker of years of contribution and indexation average monthly payment amount of total fat. Subsequently, the local government has established a full-time management of social insurance institutions, vested in the supervision of the Ministry of Labor. All employees (including permanent workers with contract workers) for the expansion of the traditional pension payment of social insurance foundation in 1991, the State Council required in the decision "in the reform of old-age insurance system for enterprise workers of state-owned enterprises should be 3% of the standard wage from sign points to the scheme payment. The decision on the reform of old-age insurance system for enterprise employees established by the three levels of the state, enterprises, individuals constitute the basic mode of China's old-age social insurance, initially identified the basic framework of the old-age insurance system for enterprise employees in China: the gradual establishment of a national basic pension insurance, enterprise supplementary pension insurance and workers personal savings for old age insurance system which combines. In this multi-level old-age social insurance system, the basic old-age insurance is the core, and unity in the country by the national legislation to enforce applicable to urban workers. The second level is organized by the unit on its own economic power, reflect the different units of the difference in economic conditions of the old-age security. The third level is the individual workers savings for old age insurance, the voluntary participation of individuals according to the economic capacity and the different needs of the national policy to give appropriate guidance to give appropriate preferential treatment in the savings rate.

3, the new old-age social insurance system
"Decision on the establishment of a socialist market economy, a number of issues," the Third Plenary Session of the 14th Party Congress in 1993 established a multi-level social security system for one of the basic pillars of China's socialist market economic system, and proposed the establishment of a new social security system the basic principle. "Decision" an important contribution to old-age social insurance for the first time in the social co-ordination mechanism is certainly a personal account status and role of the mechanism in the direction of reform. First of all, the leaders of the personal account mechanism to fundamentally change the operation mechanism of the traditional pension plan. Personal accounts is actually the Fund made a derived mechanism, the so-called "combined with system account" is actually a combination of social pooling fund made. Financing to implement fully accumulation fund system, granted to the eligibility and benefit rules undoubtedly different from the traditional annuity plan. Second, personal accounts in his own name fully accumulation of nature, its first world has a clear personal property point, that belongs to the property rights of citizens is inviolable status of individual long-term savings. In March 1995, the State Council issued the "Notice on deepening the reform of old-age insurance system for enterprise employees," further define the objectives, principles and main tasks of the reform of China's old-age social insurance system. That is the end of the 20th century, the basic set up to adapt to the socialist market economic system, to adapt to the urban enterprise employees and self-employed workers, multi-channel sources of funding to protect the way of a multi-level, a combination of social pooling and individual accounts, the rights and obligations of the corresponding management services social pension insurance system. The basic pension insurance should gradually achieve a unified system of various types of enterprises and workers, unified standard, unified management, unified transfers fund. "Notice" was first proposed to implement the principle of a combination of social pooling and individual accounts pension insurance model. And at the same time the introduction of two sets of embodiment, two sets of programs in the form of the payment is divided into the social pool and personal accounts part, but the two basic social pooling and individual accounts under the new system in the pros and cons Select a tendency, but there are larger differences. In 1997, the State Council issued a decision on the establishment of a unified basic pension insurance system. Problems before the period of reform Decided to "determine the pension and social insurance, the contents of the Harmonized System: unified Payment proportion; the unified personal accounts; the unified personal pensions are calculated and paid. 4 new old-age social insurance system perfect
In 2000, the central government organized special forces to study proposed a pilot program to improve old-age social insurance system, and pilot projects in Liaoning Province in July 2001, the scope of the pilot has been expanded to Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces. The Central Government to amend and improve the old-age social insurance system, the most direct motivation is to save the old-age social insurance system. Since 1998, China's old-age social insurance system faces two enormous pressure: First, the pension fund income over expenditure, pension arrears very serious. Second, personal accounts carried no money, "empty account" interesting personal account trade-offs again. Give it up, the system design of the system account Junction station "come to nothing; need for financial support to keep it. On the basis of careful study, the State Council formulated the "improve the urban social security system pilot program, the core content includes two aspects: adjust and improve the basic old-age insurance system. To insist on a combination of social pooling and individual accounts system, but to improve and perfect the specific implementation measures: First, to reduce the scale of personal accounts. The enterprise payment is no longer assigned to a personal pension account, the proportion of individual contributions step to 8%, and Hutchison personal account; personal account real account operator. Social pool fund and personal account fund implementation of split management, which is managed by the provincial social insurance agencies can only purchase government bonds in a certain period of time; Third, is to raise the level of basic pension. Payment more than 15 years, every full year to increase the proportion of the basic pension, but ultimate control of local employees last year 30% of the average wage.

Second, China's old-age social insurance system reform Commentary

China in the process of establishing a socialist market economy, the need to reform the social security system. Unlike the conversion of the social insurance system in Chile and other countries, China's social insurance system reform is faced with two basic tasks: one is with the socialist market economic system, the establishment of the social security system of socialization, the completion of enterprises (units) insurance to social insurance system conversion. This is different from any other national social security system reform is an important feature. This conversion does not belong to now pay-as-you-go mode or the fund accumulation mode contentious areas. If the past is the present pay-as-the this conversion also need to meet the expanding existing pay-as-needs. The second task is to establish a funded system including a multi-pillar system, in order to meet the economic development and world-wide social security system reform trend. Mixed system (partially funded system), hoping to solve the above two tasks at the same time, the "double" the progressive introduction of China since the 1990s, a combination of social pooling and individual accounts.
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