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A literature review on foreign industrial cluster: an institutional perspective

Author: ZhengHongXing From: www.yourpaper.net Posted: 2010-07-08 11:49:47 Read:
[Keywords] industrial cluster     system; transaction costs; flexible production regional innovation
[Abstract] system from the perspective of foreign scholars study on industrial cluster are visible, these scholars have made seminal contributions, some do pioneering work, some proposes innovation system.But the study also exists the concept and connotation of industrial cluster is too broad; bring one-sidedness problems, the research object of this broad concept, put forward the research direction of industrial cluster theory.
Under the condition of globalization of economic development in the region, local phenomenon has been widespread concern in theoretical circles and industrial circles, industrial cluster is not only the research hotspot of scholars benevolent see benevolence, the wise see wisdom, an important strategic choice is also the government economic development.This paper comments on the industry cluster study literature from the perspective of system, on the basis of industry cluster theory, and put forward the research assumption.
The external economic theory of , Marshall
Research on industrial cluster can be traced back to Marshall (AlfredMarshall, 1890).Marshall in the 1890 classic, "principles of economics" was first proposed in the "industrial zone" (industiraldistirct) concept, he will "industrial district" is defined as "a natural history and the limited area, the small and medium-sized enterprise positive interaction, enterprise groups and social trend of integration"; Marshall in "economics the principle of" is first mentioned the external economic concepts (externaleconomies), he thinks that the industrial cluster is caused by external economy; Marshall from the three aspects of regional industry aggregation of explanation: labor market share (1aborforcepooling), spillover intermediate input and Technology (technologyspillover).
Later in the study of the origin of the theory of industrial cluster, always want to put Marshall's theory as a classic exposition.No doubt, Marshall made pioneering contributions to the theory of industrial cluster.However, the author thinks, Marshall's labor market share of 1 (aborforcepoolin) g spillover, intermediate input and Technology (technologyspillover), it is because of the formation of industrial clusters, might as well say industrial cluster advantage.In fact, Marshall's theory does not explain the process of industrial cluster is how to start, also not of the industry in a particular region rather than other regional agglomeration reasons.Marshall stressed that the industrial zone, the vertical division of the enterprises in the area of competition, cooperation and area values the important role in the analysis of the characteristics of the industrial park, but he doesn't have a division of labor, to support enterprise park competition, cooperation between the system made the discussion, also does not have the analysis of common values and culture (informal) causes.In fact, these important institutional problem is Marshall a priori hypothesis for congenital existence, rather than forming in the evolution in industrial cluster.
Regional economic theory, Webb
Alfred Webb (AlrfedWeber, 1909) on the point of in-depth study on industrial clusters from the industrial location, and first proposed the concept of agglomeration economy (agglomerationeconomies).Webb from the angle of enterprise location, the comparison whether firms near each other depending on the benefits and costs of agglomeration, in-depth study of the factors of industrial agglomeration, the agglomeration of the quantization rules, the research results have important theoretical value.He thinks, agglomeration factors can be divided into two stages: the first stage is only through the expansion of their own enterprises and produce agglomeration advantages, this is the initial stage; the second stage of each enterprise through the related organizations and local industrialization, this is the advanced phase of the most important gathering.Industrial complex agglomeration advanced stage Webb is discussed by us.Isard and Smith further development of Webb's theory; Lindberg, Isard, Cumberland and Kennelly done a lot of empirical research.Their main point is: enterprise according to the principle of maximum principle of minimum cost and income position and scale of the enterprises.Accordingly, the enterprise will gather in the near natural resource areas or the target market for a product.
The origin of Webb created the regional economic theory on industrial cluster provides a strong explanation, further, Webb's theory can explain the reasons when knowledge becomes the most important factor of production enterprise agglomeration in Institutions of higher learning and scientific research institutes around.However, although Webb on the industrial agglomeration can do and emphasizes the formation of industry and local senior agglomeration importance of mutual cooperation between enterprises, but he did not demonstrate the industry from primary to senior agglomeration agglomeration system evolution; but, Webb's theory only considers the factors of industrial agglomeration, his theory can not explain the paradox of location under the condition of globalization. "".
The theory of economic geography, Krugman
Paul Krugman (PaulKrugman, 1991199519992000) made pioneering work as the representative of the new classical economic geography theory for the study of industrial cluster (Pinch& Henry, 1999).Paul Krugman published "increasing returns and economic geography" is an important literature influential and representative..Krugman through the new trade theory, the development of agglomeration economy point of view.He used a mathematical method, proved that the cause of formation of industrial agglomeration in the central area of manufacturing industry.Can say, Krugman is after Marshall first put the location problem and the problem of scale economy, competition, equilibrium economics research in these perennial with mainstream economists together, and to the industrial cluster to give a high degree of attention, that the concentration of economic activities is closely connected with economy of scale, can lead to increasing returns.Krugman's research has changed the industrial cluster theory at the edge of the state in the field of economics, and gradually lead to the industry cluster study upsurge.
Krugman will be the regional industry agglomeration and external economic, trade, flexible specialization for new industrial geography (lfexiblespecialization) theory provides a good explanation; Krugman thinks the development of regional economy is dependent on a historical, path (pathdependence) process: history through the initial conditions (initialconditions) and events (accidentaleven~) decision Industrial Development Model, the specific development pattern of a region and the strengthening effect (self-reinforcingeffect) produce lock effect (1ock - ineffect).However, Krugman only focus on model externalities by mathematical method, and has no effect on geography of technology and knowledge spillover; Krugman ignores the effect of institutional, social and cultural structure of regional economic development, he believes that the factors of non economic or social difficult to be modeled by sociologists, economists should not to study the (RonMartin, PeterSunley, 1996).In this way, Krugman analyzed the impact area of concrete (Region - speciifcshocks), the regional economic impact, but his model can not explain why certain area than other areas in the face of adverse external shocks (negativeexternalshocks) will have to adapt and adjust ability good.
The new economics of competition theory, Potter
Potter (M.E.Potrer, 1998) in his paper systematically presents the industrial cluster as the main goal of the new economics of competition theory.Potter thinks that industrial cluster is concentrated in touch with each other in a specific area of business enterprises and relevant institutions, the cluster formed by informal ties between independent enterprises and related institutions, represents a kind of can create competitive advantages in terms of efficiency, effectiveness and toughness in the form of spatial organization, it produces continuous competitive advantage from specific areas of knowledge, and motivation, distant competitors can not reach.Potter first put forward the concept of industrial cluster (industrialcluster), in fact, the concept of industrial cluster it quickly into the concept of industry cluster industry standards (RonMartin, PeterSunley, 2002).Potter's "cluster" is not only of theoretical concept, it is to an important policy tool.Potter himself became many countries and area policy consulting experts and consultants.Potter's main contribution is to explain the phenomenon of industrial cluster from the perspective of competitiveness of enterprises
, that industry cluster can improve the competitiveness of enterprises, and to the industrial cluster why can affect the competitiveness of enterprises is described.But the theory of industrial cluster, Potter also has some limitations.
Firstly, the concept of industrial cluster of Potter is a very broad concept, from the regional competitiveness, the competitiveness of the city to the national competitiveness, industrial cluster has become the economic development of a ready-made panacea in Potter; Potter emphasizes that bring the relationship of competition and cooperation among enterprises in industrial cluster or the relevant agencies benefits, but did not cause analysis of this kind of competition cooperation relationship; Potter places too much emphasis on the formation and development of the role of government in the industrial cluster, not of industrial cluster evolution process and system arrangement as the in-depth explanation.
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