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Origin of mercantilism theory and Western trade protection policy

Author: YeXiaoDong From: www.yourpaper.net Posted: 2010-07-07 02:51:52 Read:
Keywords: the mercantilist international trade theory
Abstract: mercantilist trade protection theory of international trade theory earliest history.In Fourteenth Century originated in the British.16 seventeenth Century is its heyday.The only form of this theory as the currency for wealth, that the trade surplus is conducive to the accumulation of wealth, so the country should take intervention and protection policy to realize the trade surplus.In fact, the progress of early trade protection system is to promote the capitalist primitive accumulation, promoted the development of commodity economy in the field of circulation.
The L5 to the L7 century, international trade began with real world properties and obtained significant development.During this period, due to the development of social division of labor, the countries of Western Europe feudal natural economy continues to decline, the commodity money economy made great progress, provides the material basis for the development of international trade; on the other hand, the great geographical discovery that Western Europe country have come to Asia, Africa and Latin America expansion of the road, the majority of the colonial countries involved in international trade, and international trade scale unprecedented expansion of the scope, all of which have significant development in international trade.15 to L7 century, is the period of primitive accumulation of capital.During this period, Western European countries the abolition of the feudal system. Capitalism developed rapidly, the emerging commercial bourgeoisie for accelerated the primitive accumulation of capital are in urgent demand.They by means of state power eliminate feudal separatism of unified market, the foreign policy of colonial expansion to expand the overseas market.Foreign trade surplus is also emerging commercial asset class as an important way of monetary capital accumulation.They believe that in order to realize the foreign trade surplus, we must carry out the state intervention of foreign trade practices, the trade protection measures taken by severe.
From 15 to seventeenth Century, the central government is western Europe power expanding period, provides the political basis for the implementation of the trade protection system.At the end of fifteenth Century and early sixteenth Century, the feudal system collapsed, the representative of new political forces of the nation, sovereign things, "the central government supervision to expand trade," the ability to set trade is disorder, in order to meet the needs of the government to amass wealth, ease the contradiction between supply and demand of domestic currency, centralized state power began to use circle home implementation of trade protection, supporting the development of commercial capital.
With the significant development of international trade, need the primitive accumulation of capital, need to amass wealth emerging nation. The trade protection system early, theoretical basis and the is mercantilism.
Mercantilism is the international trade theory earliest history of trade protection theory, originated in the UK in Fourteenth Century, 16 to seventeenth Century is its heyday.This theory regards money as the only form of wealth, that the trade surplus is conducive to the accumulation of wealth, so the country should take intervention and protection policy to realize the trade surplus.This theory meets the need of the primitive accumulation of capital, and in the 15 to early bourgeois in seventeenth Century for the countries of Western Europe absolute monarchy and representative of the commercial interests of capital and its implementation.Mercantilism has experienced the development of early and late two stages, or through the "monetary balance theory" and "the theory of the balance of trade" two stages.The previous stage of mercantilism period (fifteenth Century to mid sixteenth Century) imported focus on gold and silver, advocate the use of administrative means to expand exports, to absorb a large amount of gold and silver from abroad, and then try to keep it.At the later stage is late mercantilism (mid sixteenth Century to 17 period), Marx called real mercantilism, recognize only the money into the business, in order to earn more money, so against the government restrictions on the practice of forced to take monetary output, as long as the trade surplus will have more money flows back to the country, in order to increase their wealth, it is also known as the "theory of the balance of trade".The gold and silver, is strictly prohibited for export.It is also known as the "monetary theory of the balance of".Mercantilism early and late this difference appears, is due to the economic development of different degree, in the mercantilist in Western Europe countries domestic commodity production and circulation is not developed, foreign trade is not fully developed, it also can not guarantee the economic means to attract foreign noble metal.By the late mercantilist international market was established, has a great development of domestic industry, the expansion of foreign trade, and realize the trade surplus has become possible, thus changing the policy.The relationship between mercantilism theory and early trade protection system is very close, hand mercantilism theory directly influences the early trade protection legislation.Such as "white British foreign trade wealth" a Book Marx on behalf of the evaluation of mercantilist representative Thomas Men, think that the book has a direct impact on England legislation; representative trade protection legislation "mercantilism era of Navigation Act", is also the mercantilism thought in the embodiment of law.On the other hand, the trade protection theory and policy of mercantilism needs to be realized by the support of the legal system.
In the mercantilist theory, the Western European countries to implement the trade protection policy of mandatory, this period of international trade discrimination policy become the basic point of the earliest is a typical trade protection policies is state intervention of foreign trade, the implementation of protective trade, increase the monetary wealth.In order to increase the monetary wealth of mercantilism, in early and late to adopt different policy means.Mercantilism period countries adopt administrative legislation, direct controls on the flow of money, gold and silver outflow is strictly forbidden, all the money from the state monopoly trade.In order to prevent the outflow of currency as a guiding principle in foreign trade policy.Mercantilism period, government regulation measures of gold and silver from the early management of import and export development for the management of import and export of goods, "prize income limit out" trade policy in this period is the main syndrome.And "prize income limit out" combined with the industrial policy.The import restrictions: the prohibition of some foreign goods, especially luxury imports; limit the import of foreign goods, the imposition of tariff protection, but the raw materials are imported duty free.In reward for export: stop the raw materials or semi-finished products export, manufactured goods export incentives, exports of domestic goods given allowances, reduce or exempt from export tariffs on some commodities, and the implementation of the export tax rebate, monopoly colonial trade policy, to ensure that the colonies became their finished goods market and raw material supply.Other encouraging industrial development policy measures are: to increase the supply of labor reward population reproduction; a low wage policy to reduce cost; prohibition of skilled artisans and skilled technical workers outflow and tool equipment output; encourage foreign skilled workers, immigration to maintain competitive advantage; for the workshop handicraft industry loans and provide preferential terms, to promote the expansion of production scale.
Trade control as a sign of until the age of mercantilism trade protectionism will appear.
With the emergence of trade protectionism, trade protection system of the earliest also emerge as the times require.During this period, the trade protection system has become the implementation of trade protection policy tool.Mercantilism is popular in Western europe.The trade protection system originated in Western europe.Western European countries the mercantilist for the implementation of trade protection policy, decree or ban, trade protection legislation began to appear. It can be said that trade protection legislation and mercantilism policy and development together.In 1440 the British round a law by marks the mercantilist policies established in the uk.It provides, foreign businessmen to ship to UK, must be converted into the price of all goods; British businessman outside the business, must be at least part of sales income in the form of cash back home.This law can be said to be one of the earliest trade protection system.1651 marks the maritime law of mercantilism has reached its heyday in the uk.Maritime law can be said is the concentrated embodiment of mercantilism thought in law, is the most typical early legislation of trade protection system, its contents will be introduced in this article.
The following discussion of trade protection policies of various countries adopted in carriers in age.
, UK
Britain is typical of this period to implement the trade protection system strictly.Including the basic system: first, issued a decree to prevent precious metal output abroad.On fifteenth Century, promulgated a series of regulations prohibit the precious metal output, the Tudor Dynasty (1485 -- 1603) early domination has repeatedly to reiterate, Queen Elizabeth (1558 -- 1603 reign) successor, and in 1559, 1581, banned noble metal output law.Second, forbidden luxury input.In 1700 the British government issued a decree prohibiting India, Persia and China printing fabric input.Then the provisions of the prohibition of all living British residents trading, wear or possess these fabrics, such as a violation of the general department, with 5 pounds of businessmen, fine, 20 fine third, implement protective tariff system to strictly limit the importation of goods, in addition to a number of raw materials, for all input British goods almost all levy heavy taxes.Among them, the British Maritime Law, the law of grain are typical of that period, more systematic, more impact protective tariff act.In 1651, the British passed important "maritime law", followed by many additional revision, and a series of other control of the sea transport of goods and encourage the export trade act together
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