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Characteristics and Enlightenment of British modern urbanization

Author: MouYuanJun From: www.yourpaper.net Posted: 2010-07-06 03:05:25 Read:
Abstract: In 1760 to 1881 more than 100 years of time, the British completed the course of urbanization, the world's first urbanized countries, their overall development is more successful, China's current urbanization development has provided a lot of useful insights, the mode the urbanization choice to be taken, in terms of population movements, the household registration system should adapt to the requirements of the development of urbanization through deepening reform,
Keywords: urbanization; concentrated urbanization; migration; household management

First, the history of the British modern urbanization Features

Time from 1760 to 1881, more than one hundred years, the level of urbanization in the United Kingdom increased by about 10% to 72%. Throughout the history of the modern city, has the following features:
(A) British modern urbanization is a natural process of advance is basically the result of spontaneous social, economic laws. Government intervention rarely. The British modern urbanization movement is the precursor of the World Urbanization movement, no precedent to follow, and urbanization development period, the United Kingdom is in the stage of laissez-faire capitalism, the government adopted a laissez-faire policy. In this case both advantages and disadvantages. On the one hand, the process of urbanization natural, healthy side, to avoid the government Destructive Enthusiasm or artificially suppress possible evils. But on the other hand, the laissez-faire of urbanization also has its negative aspect of the government due to the lack of unified planning and management, urban planning within disorganized. Making the environment pollution, housing, traffic congestion and other traditional "urban disease" has become so severe that the many advantages of the city are covered.
(B) Modern England pace of urbanization is quite rapid, from 1750 - 1851, the level of urbanization increased from 10% to more than 50%, British modern urbanization, the rapid development of the following reasons: first, the United Kingdom agricultural special structure, is a hybrid of agriculture, animal husbandry developed than the farming industry, the labor required to promote a large number of the population into the cities, the level of urbanization is greatly improved, the British premier international status on Modern English the process of urbanization has had a major impact on British the modern maritime hegemony and colonial hegemony of the last winner, colonial plunder brought enormous wealth for the British. The majority of the Asian, African and Latin American region has become worldwide urbanization in rural areas, the Modern England urbanization as a few roots of a common supply seedlings, its growth rate is quite fast.
(C) Leisure & Wellness City, modern Britain is the richest man in the capitalist world, is the most powerful industrial empire, colonial empire, the world financial center, and an important social base for leisure, recuperation of urban development. British coastline of 11,450 kilometers, the favorable conditions for the development of these cities a unique, good transport facilities to further ensure the development of these cities.
(D) in Modern Britain the process of urbanization, the urban population in more immigrants. Initially for the Irish. Domestic famine and poverty driven influx of the United Kingdom, most of them settled down in the industrial area, they bear the coal mines, textile, construction, docks and other bulky, and low wages of menial jobs, to promote industrial and urban development played an important positive role. Late in the urbanization, the composition of immigrants into the United Kingdom has changed to a higher level, with the urbanization and other countries, to the business community in the high-tech personnel began to pour into the United Kingdom, most of them concentrated in big cities, especially London the total number of foreign immigrants in the UK, 1881 was 12.4 million, of which 60,000 people gathered in London.

Modern English urbanization revelation

The British modern urbanization the path is largely successful. Experience more than a lesson, contact the actual urbanization in China, many useful lessons can be drawn:

(A) should continue to accelerate the rate of progress of urbanization in China.
British modern urbanization forward speed is very fast, it played an active role for the promotion of British industrialization to develop in depth and even the overall economic development of society as a whole is very huge and obvious. Of course, in the process of urbanization in the United Kingdom there are many problems, but most of these problems with the development of urbanization and gradually resolved or eased, are on the road ahead is normal. In contrast, the rigid and conservative is no way out.
In over a period of time, industrial development while ignoring the development of the city, the implementation of the rural strategy, engage in the mountains, scattered, hole ", the lessons are heavy, some Latin American countries are different from us, they realize industrialization at the same time, the implementation of a full range of urban open system. With a large degree of success. Although people exclaim in some countries in Latin America, such as Mexico, the so-called "over-urbanization", while at the same time have to admit, Latin America has become a "developed areas in developing regions in Asia, Africa and Latin America. (B) should take the road of urbanization led to the development of large and medium-sized cities.
The British modern industrialization development process, performance for the rapid development of large and medium-sized cities, and small cities of the relatively slow pace of development, the pace of development of the ten major cities led to London has been far beyond the other small and medium-sized cities, the United Kingdom in 1851, the basic realization of urbanization, population of the top ten cities accounted for 23% of the country's total population, huge radiation of large and medium-sized cities in their respective fields, to comprehensively promote the economic development of peri-urban areas, the way of this city can be said to "concentrated urbanization".
Urbanization, there is another: "decentralized urbanization," vigorously develop small towns to promote rural urbanization, rural industrialization and urbanization, and then through the small towns, has been called "suitable for China's national conditions the road of urbanization with Chinese characteristics. ", but, with the continuous development of small cities and towns, the poor quality of the road exposed to more and more: First, the small towns scattered layout, a large number of occupation of cultivated land, exacerbated by China's cultivated land shortage deteriorate. Second, the size of small towns, it is difficult to create economies of scale, low efficiency, the serious pollution of small towns, and it is difficult to focus on governance. Above show that decentralized urbanization road is narrow and difficult, even more successful in the development of small towns, but also with the most advantage of the big cities, such as the Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta, the formation of some of the more economically developed urban agglomeration .
Of course, it does not mean to exclude the development of small cities give priority to the development of large and medium-sized cities. On the contrary, by developing among cities to stimulate the development of small cities, thus promoting the process of urbanization, which should be the best choice of China's urbanization.
(C) should be speeded up in the run-up to the current reform of the household registration system, to reduce the barriers to free movement of people,
The process of development of the city of any country, without exception, has experienced the process of migrating population movements. British modern urbanization process, the number of population migration is quite large. According to statistics, in 1851, the largest city in England and Scotland 71 people 111,660 people, of which 300 million are immigrants, in the migration process, poor Migration Act was enacted in 1795, the abolition of outdated "settled law" to guarantee the free movement of people, and promote the urbanization smooth played a important role.
In recent years, in the face of more rapid momentum "Flood", the existing household registration system can not parry. Its reform is imperative. According to statistics, the rural surplus labor force has reached more than 200 million people will be such a large amount of surplus labor fixation on the limited land is clearly impossible, it is necessary to relax the restrictions of the free movement of people, at the same time, the phasing out of urban household registration has privileges, reduce the blindness of the population into the city, it just means that the place of residence of the holder of the identity management system to establish and urban economy to adapt.
(D) to speed up the construction of agriculture, transportation and other basic industries, to lay a solid foundation for the further development of urbanization.
The Modern England urbanization is more successful. This UK-developed agriculture and advanced transportation industry are inseparable. Before the urbanization of the United Kingdom, enjoys the reputation of the "granary" of Europe; in the transportation industry, such as railways, canals, sea traffic conditions are very developed, which ensures the blood flow of the entire socio-economic development, urbanization and social overall economic development indispensable condition.
The history of the development of the world economy that hardly Which country is not the first or at the same time develop their agriculture to maintain sustained economic growth, China, as a large agricultural country, the current level of development of agriculture is not high, the development of the productive forces in agriculture behind hysteresis urbanization process. The main reason for this result is a large number of small-scale peasant economy, small-scale operations can not create economies of scale, a large number of the remaining population of the mechanization development lack of motivation. In this regard, it should be on the basis of the production responsibility system of agricultural industrial structure adjustment, allowing the annexation of land in order to create economies of scale.
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