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The role of SMEs in the status quo in regional innovation system

Author: HanXiaoMing ZhuXiaoXia From: www.yourpaper.net Posted: 2010-07-01 14:16:34 Read:
Keywords: regional innovation system in small and medium-sized enterprises independent innovation role of
Abstract: from the perspective of vertical perspective, in recent years our country small and medium-sized enterprise in raising funds for science and technology, R& had the new change, science and technology personnel expenditure D funds distribution and patent.Although SMEs as RIS innovation main body status has been preliminarily formed.But compared with developed countries, China's small and medium-sized enterprises in technological innovation level also has the very big disparity.Only through the introduction of digestion and absorption and innovation as well as the combination, the ability of independent innovation in order to further develop the small and medium-sized enterprise.
Since the nineteen seventies, small enterprises in the worldwide began to revive, and playing a more and more important role in many countries.Especially since the nineteen ninties, both the 0ECD countries, the newly industrialized countries in Asia and other developing countries and regions, small and medium-sized enterprises has a great contribution to GDP.So more and more researchers are aware of this situation, rooted in the particular region of the small and medium-sized enterprises and cluster to promote the regional economy will be more prominent.
In the regional innovation system to the market mechanism as the main mode of resource allocation in the small and medium-sized enterprises, is the core of the main body of technical innovation.First, the small and medium-sized enterprise is the main body of technological innovation decision-making, innovation input, output and benefit from innovation, in regional innovation networks, small and medium-sized enterprises and other sources of innovation or actors interact.The new technology of small and medium-sized enterprises have purchased and internal production two sources from the outside.Research and development of small and medium-sized enterprise internal departments play the main role in technology innovation.Small and medium-sized enterprises in the market incentive mechanisms, and form in order to obtain the technology innovation of monopoly profits, the internal impetus; continuous innovation in the competition, innovating constantly threaten the survival and development of the small and medium-sized enterprise under pressure.Second, in the process of innovation, the small and medium-sized enterprise according to market signals and internal planning, new forms of production factors, and other than the main innovation market to change there are more agile and more timely response.That is to say, small and medium-sized enterprises in the innovation system not only undertakes the research into practice the main body of the market the products, behavior subject also will transfer the market information of science and technology for scientific research institutions.Therefore, the role of small and medium-sized enterprises in regional innovation system, plays an important role in the regional innovation system and the healthy growth of smes.
Analysis of the role of small and medium-sized enterprises, in the RIS
Since the reform and open policy, the gradual process of transformation of China's science and technology system reform and innovation system, is the process of strengthening enterprise main body position in the process of technological innovation.In 1999 August, the State Council issued "on the strengthening of technological innovation, the development of high-tech, industrialization decision", clearly proposes to strengthen enterprise technology innovation subject status, give full play to the basic role of market mechanism in the allocation of science and technology resources, promote the most power of science and technology into the market.Therefore, the longitudinal study in the following on the role of small and medium-sized enterprises in the RIS part of the index in 1999, as China's enterprises in the main body of technical innovation in the course of a cut-off point, through the comparison and analysis of the related data, in order to show the small and medium-sized enterprises in the development of RIS in recent years.
(a) funding for science and technology activities to raise the
With the development of science and technology system reform of our country further, central decision based on existing achievements of the reform, which is run by the institutions to implement the system of enterprises for the development of scientific research institute.Because the material limits, here only to fund of our country science and technology activities were investigated, and not on the main R& statistical D funding situation.From table 1 can be seen between 2000 and 2005, with the continuous growth of China's science and technology funds, government funds, enterprise funds and loan funds financial institutions a total of
Also on the increase, the most obvious is the total funds of small and medium-sized enterprises, increased from 26980000000 yuan in 2000 to the 2005 l526.7 billion yuan, of which a year from 2002 to 2003, funds for scientific and technological activities increased three times, to 80620000000 yuan from 27100000000 yuan, than the weight from 9.23% growth to 23.31%, the first accounted for China's total funding for science and technology activities of around 1/4, the growth rate much higher than other departments.This shows that the construction of our country reform of system of science and technology and the regional innovation system has achieved some success, business investment in China has become the main source of funding channels of R& D, China's enterprises have been become the main body of technological innovation, and compared with large enterprises, SMEs in China has rapidly grown into a RIS teams should not be underestimated the power of innovation.



(two) R& D expenditure of
As can be seen from table 2, in the 2000 - 2005 6 years, research and development institutions, towel of small enterprises, large enterprises and institutions of higher learning of the four R& the absolute value of D expenditures were increased, in which it is evident from Figure 1 research and development institutions proportion continues to drop, higher school the proportion of basically the same, that the government is gradually reduced to the research and development institutions and the University's R& D investment.The enterprise R& D expenditure proportion in 2005 accounted for R& D expenditure amounted to 68.32%, an increase of 1.49 percentage points over the previous year.Especially small and medium-sized enterprises, since 2003 the proportion of investment is soaring, 2003 to 2004 rose 1.34%, 2O04 year in 2005 rose 1.80 percentage points, in all this time society have begun to attach importance to small and medium-sized enterprises, small and medium enterprises focus on R & D investment.Analysis of this table can be seen, the status of the small and medium-sized enterprises in China's regional innovation system has been strengthened, and R & D institutions also strengthened R& D input, two assist and support an important role for small and medium-sized enterprises in technological innovation activities.

Personnel in scientific and technological activities (three) distribution of
Personnel in scientific and technological activities are directly engaged in scientific and technological activities, and specialized in the activities of science and technology management and provide direct services for the activities of science and technology, engaged in scientific and technological activities of the actual work time accounted for system working time of 10% and above personnel.A country's economic development, scientific and technological strength of competition in the final analysis depends on the quantity and quality of talent.Therefore, the number of each of the executive departments here will have the personnel in scientific and technological activities has become an important index as a measure of the RIS role is to be investigated.


It is seen from table 3, research and development institutions and technological activities in China are mainly distributed in the small and medium enterprises, large enterprises, universities and government departments of the genus.Since twenty-first Century, the number and scale of government departments is a research and development institutions engaged in scientific and technological activities decreased, decreased from 491300 in 2000 to 456000 in 2005, the proportion in the national science and technology activities of personnel in 2005 11.95%.The implementation of the transformation of the main reason is that most of the technical development of type, large number of scientific and technological personnel transferred to the enterprise or other areas.One retired peak is the reason in recent years when China research and development institutions of scientific and technical personnel.In 2005 the number of higher school science and technology personnel 471000 people, accounting for 12.35% of national science and technology personnel.Personnel in scientific and technological activities of enterprise scale up to 1679000 people, including towel small enterprises 845500, accounting for all the activities of science and technology personnel 22.16%, the first to occupy the first position, greatly exceeded the number of research and development institutions and institutions of higher learning.These data show that, our country small and medium-sized enterprise has already become the main body of scientific and technological personnel input in RIS.
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