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Research on the choice of different types of regional innovation policy

Author: QuShiYou WangLing From: www.yourpaper.net Posted: 2010-06-29 04:42:18 Read:

Abstract: for the past ten years, innovation has become an important content of regional policy.The policy more follow the high-tech zone and innovation performance good area, resulting in different types of regions tend to adopt the same policy.This paper attempts to demonstrate that due to the different center, remote and old industrial areas of innovation activities, so the innovation policy mode is not ideal existence.Analysis on the conditions of different types, regional innovation based network characteristics and innovation obstacles based on regional innovation policy, we choose different.
Keywords paper: regional innovation system; innovation; regional innovation policy
1 Introduction
In recent years, many researchers of economic geography point of view based on the in-depth study of the difference in innovation process space.The main points are as follows:
(1) innovation, patent and the main product innovations are often highly concentrated in the area of.
(2) the effect of knowledge spillover always occurs in the industrial cluster and knowledge economy, and they are often limited in a certain range from the center point in space.
(3) on the specialization and diversification for the role of innovation, the existing literature there are still a lot of controversy.According to Marshall's theory, professional help innovation; according to Jacobs, diversification is more conducive to innovation; while Feldman and Audretsch that are complementary to each other to share knowledge based industries, are more likely to promote innovation.
(4) compared with the center of regional innovation, outlying regions are considered relatively weak.These areas have lower R & D density, a low share of product innovation, and pay more attention to the cumulative innovation and process innovation.
(5) the old industrial area because the industry is relatively mature, the enterprise under the external control, focus on the cumulative innovation and process innovation, which is also considered the lack of innovation.
Therefore, in general, the developed regional center and outlying underdeveloped areas exist larger differences in innovation.In China, the township area of eastern developed areas and the western areas, the city center area and the edge, there are regional innovation differences, the situation is more complex.Therefore, in line with the development of the regional characteristics of the innovation policy, is the basis of improving the regional innovation efficiency.
type 2 regional innovation system and regional innovation system defects
Regional innovation system consists of two subsystems in the same rooted in the social economic and cultural background of composition: one is knowledge input and utilization subsystem or industrial clusters, including the enterprise and its customers, suppliers, competitors and partners; another is the knowledge generation and diffusion subsystem, including the generation and diffusion of knowledge structure and skills, such as public research institutions, technology intermediary organization (technology patent, innovation center), educational institutions (occupation training center university, school, etc.) and labor intermediary organization.In the regional innovation system is an ideal, has the close relation between subsystems and subsystems, a steady flow of easy to knowledge, resources and manpower capital and exchange.Recently some researchers explored the differences of regional innovation in the regional innovation system framework, the network characteristics and institutional factors on innovation performance and their relationship, and puts forward some innovation system.Compliance with the Nauwe.1aer and Wintjes classification in this paper, focusing on the area of several with weak innovation ability 1.According to the main features of the regional innovation system, it can be divided into innovation organization is weak, innovation network locking and innovation network segmentation 3 types, they are respectively corresponding to problem areas in 3 types: underdeveloped areas remote (regional innovation tissue loss), old industrial area (regional innovation network lock) and some of the developed regional center (segmentation of regional innovation network).Notable is, region and its main characteristics of each kind of defect is not absolute, one one corresponding relation, in addition to its main features, the other two defects may exist at the same time, but the feature is not obvious.The above 3 types of regions are likely to exist some major regional innovation.


Table 1 summarizes each kind of problem areas most important characteristics and the impact of their innovation ability.The detailed analysis of the regional innovation.
The 2.1 innovation organization weak outlying underdeveloped area
Western region of China are underdeveloped areas remote.Prominent features of remote owe developed area is the innovation organization is weak, namely the lack of organization of cluster and support dynamic, resulting in regional innovation system prerequisites missing.In these areas, compared with the agglomeration degree of the regional high, innovation activities are often at a relatively low level.The reason is that these enterprises within the region for many small and medium enterprises (SME), these enterprises R & D activities, patents and product innovation is usually lower than the average level of.Of course, there are some innovative enterprises in such regions, but their number is limited, it is difficult to form the cluster innovation dynamic.Low level of R & D activities, although does not prevent some enterprises innovative activities in the region, but other companies within the region of innovation of the enterprise weak absorptive capacity, causes the enterprise interior region to region and other enterprises in the knowledge spillovers absorption and utilization.The cluster effect in general low level also means the area such as university and research organization, more professional knowledge supply mechanism is weak.
Because of this kind of area is unable to provide the developed areas as the development environment, leading to low rate of return on talent, but also in terms of employment mechanism is not conducive to the inflow and the development of talent.Although this area may reach a low level of innovation, but innovation, high level of specialization is rare, the regional innovation network.These areas despite the establishment of some professional organizations, and improve the innovation status, but it has little effect.In many cases, these organizations and no enterprise or good to meet the needs of these enterprises.
Data show that: China's remote western region of professionals accounted for only 20.4% of the national total, senior professional and technical personnel account for only 13.6%, accounted for only 15.4% and 8.8% academicians.Colleges and universities in the western area of about more than 200 of the national total, accounting for about 20% the proportion of University, west area per capita of scientific research funds only 16000 yuan, while the East is 25000 yuan, the West has 23.3% national scientific and technological personnel; and research costs accounted for only 16.5% of the total cost of the country, at the same time, the western region to the eastern and central regions, but also the lack of industry cluster dynamic.All the above reasons, resulting in loss of many western region innovation system prerequisite, weaken the ability of innovation.
The 2.2 innovation network locking old industrial area of the
The old industrial area represents the region of another class of problems: learning and innovation ability.For the less developed regions remote, lack of cluster is an important development disorder; for the old industrial zone, cluster problem is too strong, making them a recession in the process too specialized in mature industries.These areas have been faced with clusters of negative effects such as the Enifght or the industrial cluster of "failure" mode.This problem occurs mainly in the area of heavy industry plays a dominant position, the most typical example of China's old industrial base of the northeast, it mainly lies in the sunset industry cluster is too strong and professional barriers.Although the number of base of northeast old industry the number of colleges and universities students all over the country at the forefront, the problem is during the period of school students in Colleges and universities basically very little effect on the development of local economy, and the preferred place of employment graduates are in the eastern coastal area, leaving people because the production management system yields are low and unstable, and stay in the non production management system, so the innovation of talent to play enough.
The old industrial area of innovation activities often along the technological trajectories mature development, has the characteristics of cumulative innovation.In addition, the process of innovation play a leading role in the process of system to put the new product into the market.The problem is, these two kinds of innovation often has the traditional industry and the traditional technology guide.In addition, the transfer of technology supply oriented often appear in large enterprises, while in the small business is rare, small business needs to be satisfied, interactive learning process is difficult to achieve.Characteristics of the old industrial area of social capital is often subjected to various locking effect, greatly reduces the potential for development and innovation ability of their.In the analysis of adaptability and innovation of industrial Ruhr region, according to Grabber, lock function, cognitive lock and lock (political socialization and privatization are important factors to hinder the industry reconstruction) is the main factor causing the regional innovation barriers.Therefore, the locking relationship can be attributed to two aspects of economy and politics the strong
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