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Beam pumping unit reducer leakage problems

Author: LiYueXiu From: www.yourpaper.net Posted: 2010-06-24 14:53:57 Read:
Abstract: the beam pumping unit is the most widely used, one of the most important equipment in petroleum engineering, the gearbox is the important equipment of the beam pumping unit reducer, long-term in the field operation, leakage oily variation, internal lubricating oil channel blockage can cause the lubricating oil, the article through the analysis on the oil spill site and reason, put forward the improvement measures, to extend the service life of reducer.Reducer is a common and more severe consequences, therefore, in view of the existing problems are discussed.
Keywords: reducer; leakage; reason analysis; technology improvement of
Gear reducer is put in mechanical transmission power machine and working machine connected to different series, transmission with different tooth profile and tooth number of gear, the transmission ratio of gear (or growth) of the mechanical transmission device, called the reducer reducer.The oil pumping machine is widely used in JLH, CJH, ZLH, JS series reducer, it is one of the most important equipment in the system of oil pumping machine.The role is to rotate at high speed motor through the three shaft gear into the rotational speed of the output shaft, thereby driving the whole pumping system.Reducer using oil bath lubrication, gear oil from the oil pool lubrication, bearing by splash lubrication, which is characterized by the large loading, adapt to long-term field operation, but due to various reasons, will result in various parts of the oil spill happened, this not only affects its normal work, also increased the daily management and repair work.
1, oil spills harm
The oil is to ensure the normal operation of the reducer is indispensable, it to cleaning, lubrication, cooling, antiseptic effect on gear up.The main harm of oil are:

1.1, resulting in the waste of the lubricating oil.
1.2, pollution of the body and the surrounding environment.
1.3, a serious oil spill, will accelerate the gear due to lack of oil adhesion, peeling, will gear damage caused by gear can not be normal lubrication, and even cause serious mechanical accident.
2, oil spill caused by reason of
In the closed speed reducer, each of the gear is meshed emit heat, so that the gear box temperature, the tank pressure increases.Oil from the seal is not strict to seep out.
2.1, speed reducer fittings loose.The accelerator in the assembly, box mouth, seal baffle bolt fastening torque was not enough, bolt looseness caused oil spills.
2.2, speed reducer structure design is not reasonable cause leakage, such as the design of the reducer reducer without ventilation hood, unable to realize the pressure, the pressure caused by oil spills.
2.3, the use of light weight, maintenance, fail to timely add or replace the lubricating oil.The majority of reducer since the operation, there has been no replacement of lubricants, cause oil emulsion deterioration serious.
2.4, respiratory blocking, causing reducer internal pressure caused by oil spills.
2.5, excessive lubricant, lubricating oil splash caused serious oil spill.
2.6, box mouth untight seal.
2.7, speed reducer oil return tank wall.
2.8, oil seal failure or lip wear.
3, leaking
In the survey, 76 randomly selected in Taiwan using tour of beam pumping unit, 47 of which are speed reducer leakage: the raphe joint oil 16, bearing (including the input shaft, output shaft, intermediate shaft leakage) 20, bolt oil 5, oil drain hole, observation 4 other hole leakage, leakage of 2.
Analysis of 4
, the cause of leakage
4.1 main reasons, raphe joint leakage of
4.1.1, the bolt fastening degree difference or due to vibration caused by loose, so that the box mouth generation gap, so that oil spill.
4.1.2, lubricating oil in the long-term use is not timely replacement of dirty or containing more impurities, blocked the box mouth oil return hole, poor oil return, make the oil spill.
4.1.3, the reducer assembly box mouth without gaskets, not with the box mouth sealant.
The main reason of leakage, bearing 4.2
4.2.1, as the oil dirt or impurities, blocking the bearing oil return hole, so that poor oil return.
4.2.2, due to long time operation, make the aging oil seal, wear serious, even effect.
4.2.3, shaft sinking, because the bearing gear so that the sealing effect is affected by.
4.3, set oil hole, hole leakage of reasons:
In order to prevent the oil from the oil drain plug reducer and the observation hole put oil, usually the plug and body welding speed together.Because the plug is not fastened, or in welding the sealing material damage, resulting in leakage.
4.4, the cause of leakage and
Bolt with joint surface leakage leakage is basically the same, only the lubricating oil by bolts at the leaking out, and not from the joints leak, or due to a previous raphe done plugging parts, lubricating oil can not flow from the original site, and the leakage by bolt.
4.5, other leakage reducer manufacturing defects caused by the device itself.
By analyzing the cause of reduction device, oil is: performance of lubricating oil variation, plus the impurity and iron gear wear into the oil, the lubricating oil with variable viscosity, lubrication effect of variation.Splash lubrication of gears, lubricating oil containing impurities into the lubricating oil channel reducer oil road congestion, causing oil leakage from the raphe or bolt; in the part of bearing, lubricant oil scraping the tongue scraping containing impurities, the accumulation of impurities in the vicinity of the bearings, resulting in poor oil return, resulting in bearing leakage occurred.5, check leakage technology method of
5.1, O type ring control technology: replace the oil seal rubber ring, general 10 days to a month can block.
5.2, oil seal for technology: is an oil seal sealing effect of variation for replacement, suitable for three axis, the measures of field operation difficulty.
5.3, adhesive sealing technology: high performance flexible rubber joint surface observation hole, oil, oil drain hole.
5.4, dispensing technology: a face for docking with high performance flexible rubber bolt for plugging.
5.5, leading technology: using the dredging pipe leakage on the bearing of the guide.Adding an aluminum disc flat box in the axial root, the bottom of the box out of a oil guide tube, the lower part of the shaft in the gear box oil guide pipe drilling will wear in gear box, put the spilled oil is returned to the gear box.
5.6, C type oil seal leakage technology.
6, the improvement measures of reducer
6.1, speed reducer oil according to applicable regulations for regular cleaning replacement cycle.
6.2, in the reducer manufacturing repair in the box surface apply sealant.
6.3, reducer, the oil level is too high, oil splash significantly increased opportunities and lead to leakage, temperature rising, the annual decline in lubricating oil, reduce the lubrication performance, increased oil flow and leakage, direct influence of gear and bearing lubrication, reduce the service life.Therefore, must maintain the normal level in use.
6.4, in the oil hole and the oil drain plug is provided with sealing pad, tighten the bolts, the use of anti-theft measures right.
6.5, increase the oil return hole, prevent oil leakage.
6.6, ensure the balance ratio of pumping unit, reduce the load difference of pumping unit, the down stroke, reduce runout of the three shaft, prolong the service life of the oil seal.
7, the economic benefit analysis of
7.1, the direct economic benefits:
Filling quantity of 7.1.1, according to the standard gear box oil should be 180-200 kg, per kilogram of oil is 11 yuan, if the oil leakage additional filling an annual average of about 50 kg.27 oil pumping units to prevent oil leakage reduction gearbox, annual savings of about 1350 kg of total amount of oil, about 14850 yuan rmb.
=11.0*1350=14850 yuan
7.1.2, can effectively reduce the cost for replacement of reducer, each pumping unit reducer each overhaul 24800 yuan, vehicle, labor costs more than 8000 yuan.
=2.48 0.8=3.28 yuan
7.2, social benefits: R / >
The effective implementation of speed reducer leakage technology, can contain the oil leakage of oil pumping unit reduction, prolong the service life of the reduction gearbox, reduce the labor intensity of workers, to maintain the body and clean environment, conducive to the well station management level.
8, conclusion
Reducer is the main working part of the pumping unit, repair is difficult, the high cost of.In accordance with the provisions of the reducer under normal circumstances, different seasons replace lubrication of different models, but in the field management, because of the influence of various factors, this point is difficult to achieve, long-term operation of lubrication oil deterioration and even deterioration failure.At the same time as the reducer to use period is longer, leakage phenomenon is more serious, the leakage preventing measures are not fundamentally solve the problem, a stopgap, most can only ensure no leakage during 1-2.So it is necessary to gradually carry out repair work reducer, must use fixed number of year of the reducer box cleaning, replacement of lubricating oil, which can effectively extend the service life of reducer, improve efficiency in the use of machine production equipment.

1, ginger Dianjin Changxin real, Liu Anchang, Liu Xing "science and technology innovation and practice of"
2 Guo Dong, Su Jinyang, Bai Xueming " petroleum machinery
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