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Research on the planting technique of soybean

Author: SunLiLi From: www.yourpaper.net Posted: 2010-06-24 10:50:19 Read:
Abstract: soybean is the supply and demand of China's most outstanding contradiction between grain and oil crops, is an important plant protein sources of people's life.This paper discusses the technology of soybean seed, and puts forward some effective solutions for high and stable yield, improve the yield, quality of soybean cultivation technology of soybean in China and contribute a strength.
Keywords: soybean; seeding; technology of
High and stable yield is the main direction of development, scientific research and production of soybean in China in the past, too much emphasis on Evaluation of soybean varieties high-yield index high fertilizer and water conditions, while ignoring the yield performance of general production conditions, through the efficient cultivation, the number of measures of increasing production assembly, high yield and make suitable for large area production yield, variety to achieve high quality, ecology, the purpose of safe production.Not to miss the farming season, timely sowing, seed quality assurance, to achieve the seedlings, seedlings, seedlings of uniform.

A, make production plan
Soybean is an important cash crop in china.Arrange the production plan, should first consider the market prospects.Secondly, arrange production plan should also be considered, starting from the principle of high yield and high efficiency, reasonable arrangements for the planting area.Third, according to the principle of reasonable rotation, as far as possible do not continuous cropping, combined with ground, in order to maintain the ecological balance of soil.Fourth, reasonable arrangements for the stubble.Beijing is the two cropping system in a year, in the spring sowing soybean general suitable, summer.So according to the characteristics of the local climate, and crop growth period and farming season labor arrangements, arrange crop rotation, so are intertwined, in order to obtain the best economic benefit.
Two, soil preparation of
2.1 soil preparation: soil preparation before sowing to include soil tillage and harrow plow, pressure, etc..Due to the adoption of the technology, entirely different therefore, seedbed preparation work is different.Such as flat turning, ridge tillage, stubble disking, Fukamatsu.
2.2 irrigation before sowing: for moisture not good plots, irrigation, can be in 1 ~ 2 days before sowing irrigation 1 times, wet soil, for the benefit of sowing seed germination.
2.3 herbicide before sowing: production of soybean in northeast region of China and some large farms, soybean cultivation area is large, such as the management is not timely, the weed damage, often used in mechanical spraying herbicide before sowing, field herbicide.Trifluralin, cables and other herbicides can spray in the soil before sowing.
Three,
selected seed
With good sowing quality of seeds, germination and seedling tidy up high.So before seeding, insects, small grain to grain, grain and grain sorting broken valve.At the same time, according to the typical characteristics of the variety of natural, such as grain, seed color, seed size, hilum size and color depth, different varieties of hybrid seed removal, in order to improve the purity of seed.
Four seed germination test, measurement and
Selected seed should be tested for grain weight and germination experiment before sowing.The two work is the sowing quantity calculation according to the.The selected seeds, random sampling of 3 copies, each randomly selected 100 seed, each weighing and calculated the average number, namely the varieties of 100-seed weight.The unit with G says.Seed germination rate determination: the 3 copies of each of the 100 seed, separately in 3 small or germination dish, underlying papyrus or river sand.Add water to the thin water layer, then the seeds are uniformly arranged, put at about 20 íŠ warm place (stove or incubator) imbibition germination.After 5 ~ 7 days can calculate number seed germination of the normal root, and 3 samples to be average, is the seed germination rate.Requirements for germination rate of more than 95%.

five, seed treatment
For the prevention and control of white grubs, tiger, root maggot, root rot and seedling diseases and insect pests, commonly used seed volume 0.1% ~ 0.15% phoxim or 0.7% panacea powder or 0.3% ~ 0.4% carbendazim Jiafu Beauty Double (1:1), or with 0.3% ~ 0.5% carbendazim plus captan (1:1) seed.Seed treatment with aluminium acid fertilizer seed dressing. At the same time, to be carried out in the key acid hinge seed drying.Attention should be paid to the Rhizobium seed dressing, can't mix of insecticides and fungicides.

six, sowing quantity
The determination of a variety of 100-seed weight conversion into per kilogram of grain number.
Calculated per 667 square meters plant grain number.Calculated per 667 square meters seedling number according to the actual situation, and then in accordance with the local farming conditions and management level, a certain amount of loss rate plus (such as mechanical, people, livestock resulting in field management process and artificial thinning the loss), the general field loss rate can be 15% ~ 20% calculation.
Each of the 667 square metres of seeding rate.The formula is as follows: every 667 square meters plant weight (kg) = every 667 square meters plant grain number / (kg * germination rate of seed number).For example, plan every 667 square meters plant 30000 grains, has been measured per kilogram of seed number was 5000 grains, has been measured with germination rate of 95%.Generation formula: rice seeding rate per 667 square: 30000/ (50000*0.95) =6.3 (kg).Seven,
sowing date
Effect of sowing period on Yield and quality of the very large.Sown early, late, on the growth and development of soybean were negative.Timely sowing, high seedling survival rate, seedling tidy, robust, growth is good, strong stems.Too late planting, seedling emergence is fast, but is not strong, such as moisture is not good, but also uneven emergence.The northern region, late-maturing varieties are vulnerable to frost damage, there is a risk of the4 production.Sown early, in the northeast area of China, due to low soil temperature, germination delay, which is easy to occur the phenomenon.
The soil temperature and moisture content are two main factors of spring sowing soybean suitable sowing period.Generally, the north spring soybean area, soil 5 ~ 10 cm deep soil layer, the average daily temperature 8 ~ 10 íŠ, the soil water content is about 20%, suitable sowing.So, sowing period in late April to mid May for Northeast China soybean, in the north on May in sowing, sowing mid late April to mid May, sowing the south in late April to mid May.
Summer and autumn soybean due to a shorter growing season, is very important in early sowing period.In addition, sowing time can be adjusted according to the growth period varieties, land topography.Early sowing late-maturing varieties, early-maturing varieties may be appropriate in, after sowing.Early spring, ground temperature, higher, early sowing, soil moisture good plots can later sowing, level ground can earlier sowing.

eight, sowing method
8.1 narrow row solid-seeding seeding method
Shrinkage ridge line increment, narrow row solid-seeding, is both at home and abroad actively adopted cultivation method.60 ~ 70 cm wide row spacing of 40 ~ 50 cm narrow row solid-seeding, generally can be increased by 10% ~ 20%.From sowing to harvest, cultivation management, adopts the mechanized operation.The mechanical plough land, better soil moisture, seedling tidy, uniform.Narrow row compact-planting, reasonable arrangement of the group, make full use of solar energy and soil fertility, and can effectively inhibit the growth of weeds.

8.2 with equidistance method
Machinery with equidistance improved seeding efficiency and quality.After emergence, the suitable plant spacing, reasonable distribution, individual growth equilibrium.The balanced development of population density, pod, the general yield is increased by 10% or so.

8.360 cm double drill
In the deep plowing of fine soil preparation or stubble disking fine soil preparation basis, using mechanical flat planting, sowing and cultivation and ridging.Advantages, can rob time sowing, seed falls directly on the soil, sowing depth consistent, uniform seed distribution, sprout sprout deficiency less after sowing, ridge, loose soil, and fine management, so the weeds also less.

8.4 precision sowing method
On the basis of autumn plowing harrowing or autumn plowing ridging stubble planing in the net, ridge with precision dibbler or modified harrow single grain, double grain flat planting or ridge on demand.To achieve uniform seed, sowing depth is suitable, moisture, seedling, can also be concentrated fertilization, without thinning.
8.5 of the original ridge planting
In order to prevent soil entropy, take the ridge stubble seeding.Important role of this sowing method with drought resistance, moisture, seedling, and improve the soil temperature, weeds, use of fertilizer and reducing the operation cost.Multiple application under drought conditions.

8.6 sow with a drill
Soybean sowed in summer in Huang-Huai-Hai watershed, often with the method of sowing.General in wheat harvesting seize the land, plowing depth of 15 ~ 16 cm, plough rake were real, early sowing.In the labor tension, soil drought conditions, generally take edge, rake side wheat stubble, then use of drill seeding.After sowing 1 times trailing me, to the soil to finely smooth emergence.

8.7 wheat intercropping
Summer sowing
Soybean area, more than in the mature wheat harvest, in rows of wheat interplanting soybean.General 5 months late interplanting, building type pickaxe furrowing, sowing seeds in rows of wheat, and soil-covering press.
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