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Present situation and Countermeasures of pollution-free vegetables development.

Author: LinSong From: www.yourpaper.net Posted: 2010-06-22 20:13:09 Read:
Abstract: Based on the analysis of present situation of vegetable of social effects of pollution without standard system at home and abroad, combined with the domestic research and production practice of pollution-free vegetables, and gives some suggestions to the development strategies of pollution-free vegetables.
Keywords: pollution-free vegetable; heavy metal pollution; biological control; biological pesticide
1, the introduction of
From the view of the world, for the basic concepts of pollution-free vegetables, there have been many similar formulations, such as cleaning vegetables, vegetables, no pesticide pollution in vegetables, natural food and so on, has not the concept of pollution-free vegetables form a unified view.The author thinks that: to the country promulgates "food hygiene standards" as the measure, heavy metals, pesticides, nitrate, harmful organisms (including harmful bacteria, parasite eggs) residues and other toxic substances on the human body are within the limits of the vegetable products, can be referred to as a pollution-free vegetables.[4]
In the early nineteen twenties, foreign began the development of pollution-free vegetables, the main mode of production is the soilless culture.According to incomplete statistics, the world with nutrition liquid membrane (NFT) cultivation of pollution-free vegetables countries reached 76.In New Zealand, more than half of the tomato, cucumber and other vegetables are of soilless culture.In developed countries, the United States, Holland, Japan, using a hydroponic greenhouse modernization, the annual production of pollution-free vegetables.A highly developed industry in Japan, many of its city suburban vegetable farmland is industrial waste gas, wastewater, waste residue pollution, cadmium, copper and other heavy metal Yoshida Kosaku layer within the accumulation, accumulation, resulting in heavy metal content of vegetables in the product seriously exceed the standard of heavy metal, consumers chronic poisoning have occurred from time to time, caused great attention from all walks of life and society the Japanese government.The government has allocated to the large number of special funds, to mobilize the broad scientists conduct research on "heavy metal pollution" problem.Through years of hard work, exploration of soil layer, the ground surface irrigation, fertilization, biological fixation of comprehensive agronomic measures.[1]
Research and production of non-polluted vegetables in China began in 1982, 23 provinces, city, carried out the research, demonstration and promotion of pollution-free vegetables.Through the research and practice of a few years, explore the pollution-free vegetable production technology to reduce pesticide pollution in a comprehensive control of pests and diseases, the.Vegetable production area of 600000 Mu no 1985 National promotion.
2, pollution-free vegetable research and production status of
(1) a number of efficient, non-toxic bio-pesticide development, summed up a set of biological control as the focus of the vegetable pest control technology of
The so-called biological control, generally speaking, refers to the biological control of plant diseases and insect pests and other harmful organisms for biological control and plant protection; specifically, biological control is to control the pests, plant population or reduce the harm degree by biological method or its metabolites.Our vegetable science and technology workers and vegetable planting demonstration households in the study and the long-term production practice, explore and summarize the comprehensive prevention and control technology, a set of biological control on plant diseases and insect pests of vegetables namely: strengthening agricultural control under the premise, using efficient, non-toxic biological pesticides in vegetable pests and diseases, and to protect natural enemies; if these measures are not effective, scientific and reasonable selection of high efficiency and low toxicity and low residue of chemical pesticides, and strictly control the pesticide safety interval, reduce the times and lower drug concentration.[2]
(2) initially explored the soil heavy metal pollution vegetable, heavy metal pollution in vegetable products to obtain effective solution of
Heavy metal pollution vegetable products has caused vegetable science and technology workers of our attention, at the same time for heavy metals in the soil of existence state, environmental capacity, migration and accumulation in plants, has done a lot of research.Practice shows that, organic fertilizer, can improve the physical and chemical properties of soil, increase soil environmental capacity, improve soil reduction ability, which can make the copper, cadmium, lead and heavy metals were fixed in the soil, uptake of these heavy metals in vegetables are correspondingly reduced.In addition, according to the garden land environmental condition, using the soil engineering and surface engineering method of subsoil over other engineering measures, the heavy metal pollution countermeasures are various, so it is a good.[2]
(3) has conducted the system research to the nitrate pollution in vegetables, nitrate pollution of vegetables in the product can be effectively controlled
From the beginning of 1979, the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences Institute of vegetables and flowers researchers carried out a systematic study of nitrate in vegetables distribution level, accumulation and control means that, roughly the content of nitrate in common vegetable varieties in Beijing area, points out that the content of nitrate in vegetables in addition to the growth of part varieties and species of vegetables, and vegetables on the outside, but also affected by the illumination, fertilization and other environmental conditions.The awning shading cultivation of spinach, compared with the open field cultivation, the nitrate content of the product decreased significantly; application of chemical fertilizers, the content of NO3 in leaves increased obviously in Chinese cabbage.These research results are widely used in vegetable production practice, nitrate pollution in vegetable varieties selection, from fertilization, cultivation environment control and many ways of comprehensive control of vegetable products, obvious effect.> Development Countermeasures of
(1) to strengthen administration, organization and coordination of the pollution-free vegetable production, establish and improve prenatal, births, after all in one service system.
Strong leadership, coupled with the high quality products, supply, sales integration services, is the fundamental guarantee of healthy, sustained, stable development of pollution-free vegetable production in china.Recommended the establishment of the two types of institutions in the country, city, there is no mechanism for pollution leading vegetables and pollution-free vegetables services.Strengthening the research investment, increase scientific research strength, to strengthen with and without the basic theory research and development technology of vegetable of social effects of pollution.Recommended the establishment of national no special research fund vegetable engineering hazards, the establishment of the national pollution-free vegetable research team, give special support from the financial, manpower.Focus on strengthening of microorganisms on organic pollutants in the soil (film, pesticides, waste) biodegradation mechanism, non-toxic efficient biological pesticide preparation, high resistance to plant diseases and insect pests of vegetable varieties breeding and pollution-free vegetables and related basic theory and technology research and development.[3]
(2) to build pollution-free vegetable production technology system of
a set of standardized
The production of pollution-free vegetables, need technical system of a standardized (or rules) to guide.No production technology system of vegetable of social effects of pollution, should grasp the following three: first is the production of the site shut.The first ecological environment background survey of production base for pollution-free, based on a variety of projects on the main environmental pollution detection of atmosphere, water, soil and other factors, choose regional comprehensive indicators such as environmental factors well test base.Two is the planting process, harmless turn.Good varieties of vegetables integrated technology and take control of pesticide, chemical fertilizer, biological and heavy metal pollution harm; take the organic fertilizer, fertilizer, chemical fertilizer, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium balance fertilization technology etc..Three is the vegetable residue toxicology testing off.In the vegetable market, by the quality inspection departments of heavy metals in vegetables, pesticides, chemical fertilizers and other toxic substances residues to conduct a comprehensive inspection, to ensure that the indicators of products in line with the domestic (or international) standards related to food hygiene standards or relevant area.[5]

Reference
[1] Yan Xiaobo. The pollution-free vegetables green. China Environment News, 2007.06
Discussion on [2] standard pollution-free vegetable. "Research and development" food magazine, 2007.11
[3] strengthen the non-polluted vegetable standardization construction. Farmer daily, 2006.03
[4] what is the pollution-free vegetables. Beijing Youth Daily, 2008.03
[5] Zhou Qing. Pollution-free vegetables recognition method. Press: Chinese workers press 2007.02
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