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Technical upgrading of Chinese industrial structure

Author: ZhuYan From: www.yourpaper.net Posted: 2010-06-06 13:54:18 Read:
Keywords: the industrial structure upgrading of industrial structure
Abstract: China should continue to use the open conditions, promote the upgrading of the industrial structure, it is important to pay attention to the "two innovation", to improve the effectiveness of the introduction of technology, and ultimately enhance the capability of independent innovation.
l upgrade of industrial structure and the industrial structure
1.I industrial structure
The industrial structure, the structure of the Department of the national economy, which is a factor of production in the proportion of industrial sectors and their mutual dependence, mutual restriction relationship between various industries, including agriculture, industry, service industry three industrial proportion proportional relationship.The world's industrial structure classification methods in general are divided according to the social production activities in the order of historical development: the product directly from the nature of the Department called the first industry; the re-processing of primary products department called the second industry; to provide various services for production and consumption sectors known as the tertiary industry.
Among the three industrial structure is changing, the trend is as follows: the proportion of primary industry added value and employment in the GDP and total workforce, showed a downward trend in most countries; second industrial added value and employment accounted for GDP and total labor force proportion in the previous 2O century 6O, most countries were on the rise.But after entering 2O century 6O, industry developed countries, Britain increased proportion value and employment in the gross national product and all the labor force began to decrease; the tertiary industry added value and employment proportion of GDP and total labor all rise.
The 1.2 industry structure upgrade
The upgrading of the industrial structure including the industrial structure changes and industrial upgrading of the two basic ways.
From a macroscopic point of view, the upgrading of the industrial structure refers to the specific economic environment at home and abroad and resource conditions, in accordance with the law of industrial structure evolution in general, to take certain measures, continuously improve the industrial structure level and level of development, as a kind of economic activity to protect national economic sustained growth.
Considered from the perspective of production efficiency, the upgrading of the industrial structure is the process of transformation of production efficiency, is the social production efficiency improvement and transformation from low to high, and the improvement of the whole production system.Industrial upgrading is a systematic engineering is from quantitative to qualitative accumulation, is a gradual evolution and ascension.
Theory of
relationship between technological progress and industrial structure upgrading 2
2.1 technical progress is the transformation of industrial structure upgrade.
To speed up the optimization and upgrading of industrial structure, is a long-term task of adjusting the economic development strategies.Technological change is an important intrinsic motivation of industrial structure change.In the process of economic development and industrial structure, through technical innovation and technological progress and technological change to realize the transformation to the original industrial sector and the establishment of new industrial department, which lead to the change of industrial structure.In the modern economy, technological progress and innovation of social and economic development of the endogenous variables, technical factors which cause the change of the industrial structure reflects the role and influence of technology progress and innovation on the evolution of industrial structure.
And the role of technology progress and innovation of the influence on the industrial structure can be summarized as: technological progress and innovation to productivity, promote the development of social division of labor, the formation of new industrial division of labor; technological progress and innovation to labor productivity, labor transfer, make industrial structure change.All of these effects can make the internal constitution of industrial production elements continuously advanced, the industrial structure has been advanced.The United States is the world's superpower technological progress to promote the upgrading of the industrial structure of the representative (see Table 1).

Have an important impact on the process of technical progress of industrial development structure of labor employment.With the progress of technology and development, labor force from the first industry to the second industry, and then transferred from the second industry to the tertiary industry.The first industrial labor force decline in the proportion of second industries, increasing the proportion of the tertiary industry labor force, labor force proportion rises gradually, reflect the change process is not only technical progress, and technological progress plays a promoting role.
2.2 ways of technological progress
The path of technological progress has two: first, to improve the ability of independent innovation of enterprises.The government should take measures to help enterprises to increase technical innovation required its own funds.The government should continue to improve the investment management system, causes the enterprise to realize the "survival of the fittest" through market competition, the formation of "a virtuous cycle to improve the efficiency of capital accumulation of a technical innovation to improve efficiency", solve the funding problems of technological innovation fundamentally.Second, technology transfer.Mansfield thinks, international technology transfer in vertical and horizontal transfer transfer.The vertical transfer refers to a country's research results about basic science to Applied Science in country B or use of Applied Science of country a country B production areas.Horizontal transfer refers to the application of new technology has been applied to the production of a country to country B production areas, including the transfer of material transfer, technology and personnel transfer, design.In order to get foreign advanced technology through the "Introduction" and "going out" combination, including imported from abroad of new products, imitation; purchase patents, design from abroad, in the domestic production; to accept foreign aid, sent abroad to study; learning new technology from foreign capital enterprises; the introduction of new technology talent; establish innovation mechanism, promote technology innovation, necessary to establish R & D center in foreign countries.
3 China industrial structure evolution process
Since the founding of new China in 1949, China's industrial structure has experienced three development stages: the first stage is from 2O century in the early 5O to 7O in the late 1990s, China has rapidly changed the characteristics of semi-colonial economy, initially laid the foundation for the industrialization of.The second phase from 1979 to the beginning of the 2O century 9O in the early 1980s, China adopted the reform and opening up and continuously adjust the industrial structure, so that China has entered the middle stage of industrialization.After the third stages from twentieth Century 9O in the early 1990s China proposed the establishment of the socialist market economic system, to around 2020, China will be in the realization of industrialization at the same time, the completion of the preliminary information.
The basic situation of China's industrial structure in 3.1 at the beginning of PRC
In the early days of foundation, our agricultural foundation is weak, industrial quality is not high, service development lags behind, in the whole industrial structure, agriculture was dominant, the industry foundation is weak, backward technology, category of incomplete.The overall level of industrial basically in the manual operation condition, there is no industrialization and industrial system.Only "make tables and chairs, teacups and teapots,......Grind it into flour, but also paper.However, a car, a plane, a tank, a tractor can't make."Industrial structure is very simple, the production level is very low.In 1952, the first industrial added value accounted for the GDP reached 51, second industrial added value accounted for 20.8%, the tertiary industry added value accounted for 28.2.The first industrial labor force accounted for 83.5, second of industrial labor force accounted for 7.4, the tertiary industry labor force accounted for 9.1.
The evolution of industrial structure of the 3.2 structure of the transition period
From the first five year plan to 2O in 1978 years, a fundamental feature of the mode of economic development, is the impact on the economic model of Soviet Union, throughout the process of economic development always implement planned economy thought, all of the economic growth and economic development are achieved in the planned economy mode.This highly centralized planned economy mode although the great economic achievements, but also cause a lot of mistakes and suffer huge losses.Until after the Third Plenary Session of the eleven Committee of the Communist Party of China, our country begins to explore suitable for the national conditions of new socialist economic system, finally found a suitable for China's national conditions of socialist market economy.
Along with the sustained economic growth, the CDP structure of three industries in China gradually changed, proportion of the first industry is gradually shrinking, while the first and the tertiary industry proportion has increased in recent years, practitioners are mainly from the first industry to the second and the tertiary industry shift.In 1998, the total output value of the first industry in China is 2451670000000 yuan, including agriculture, forest, animal husbandry, fishery accounted for 58.1, 3.5, 28.5, 9.9, 64.7, 4.3 compared with 1990, 25.7, 5.3, the proportion of agricultural output is lower than one amplitude, animal husbandry and fishery has increased to a certain degree of grain crops; the total yield of farm products declined from 76.7 in 1994 to 73.6 in 1998, the proportion of economic crop yield increased by 3.1 percentage points, agricultural interior structure tends to be reasonable.
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