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On the relationship between property rights and national

Author: WangLi From: www.yourpaper.net Posted: 2010-06-03 17:16:34 Read:
[Abstract] property is an exclusive property right, it is the economic rights of people around the property. Directly related to the relationship between persons and things, indirectly related to the relationship between people, that is, the relationship between property rights and non-property rights. The country is a system has a monopoly on the legitimate use of coercive means arranged in a particular region, its main function is to provide law and order. Its purpose is to safeguard property.
[Key words] the national system of property rights arrangements

Property rights related concepts
Property rights are an exclusive property rights, it is the economic rights of people around the property. Directly related to the relationship between persons and things, indirectly related to the relationship between people, that is, the relationship between property rights and non-property rights. The author believes that a direct relationship between persons and things, but this is one of the "material" is not anything, but should be a scarcity of valuable human "things". Scarcity can be understood as "rare, the lack of" also means "more is better than less". In the fresh air, the air inexhaustible, no one will get a little more air. Although the air is very important, but we can only say is better than none, not more is better than less. Scarce items also known as economic goods, such as food, clothing, rabbits, fish, and so on. For individuals, access to such items in the number is limited, or is a price, not like the air can be unlimited, no consideration was inexhaustible. There is a direct relationship between the two subjects and objects, this valuable material scarcity exclusive right to economic dominance.
Property rights economists view, the exchange of goods is actually the exchange of property rights. For example: buy houses, buyers money control over the exchange sellers housing dominance, so the buyer has the right to dominate the house at the same time lose the right to the domination of money, and the seller is the opposite. When a deal is two property rights exchange. Property rights are attached to tangible goods and services, but it is the value of the property rights to determine the value of goods exchanged. Once someone has control over something, then the others would not be in the matter has power. This economic domination rights performance on the surface of the relationship between persons and things, but the actual relationship between people exclusive property.
Property rights is not never there, I think it was the product of social progress. In primitive society, the poor people's labor, the development and utilization of natural are quite limited, considerable time productivity and population of the natural resources are inexhaustible. So when people will not be aware of the scarcity of natural resources. Only when the development of human society as well as productivity continued to progress, it is for their own interests to maximize gradually aware of the many resources relative to population, technology, and life is "scarce", and eventually value hegemonic power of these resources, then the concept of "property" in people's thinking has been gradually formed.

2 countries "institutional arrangements" - safeguard property
In accordance with the definition of the new institutional economics, the state is a system in a particular region has a monopoly on the legitimate use of coercive means arrangements, its main function is to provide law and order. The H - Dengmusaici classic paper on property rights theory "pointed out:" the property rights of the owners of his colleagues agree with his right to act in a particular way an owner expect the Community to stop other people from his action interference, it is assumed that these actions in the definition of his rights from the prohibition. "[1] which referred to the Community, we can now understand for the country. The rights defined, we can understand the institutional arrangements made by the state in the maintenance of property rights, legal. Slavery, slave owners have control over and ownership of slaves; countries of the feudal system, the king or emperor to have control over their own country and ownership; most of the capitalist countries and socialist countries issued the "Property Law" to protect its property rights of citizens are not violated. regardless of what type of country, one of the interest groups 'property rights' special maintenance from which can not be seen, the country's type determines the national special interest groups maintain, such as in capitalist countries "private property is inviolable" in the socialist countries 'public property is inviolable.' But in any case, is a kind of institutional arrangements, its purpose is to safeguard property. "[2]

3 Country "property maintenance" approach
This arrangement usually by the following aspects to achieve:
Definition of property rights. This person control over the scarcity of economic substance Once identified, the others will lose control over the economic matter, that is, this kind of a scarcity of economic dominance is the only, does not appear " free rider "problem. Determine property rights is conducive to the reduction of transaction costs, determined because property rights, ownership of and control over "material" to determine, at the time of the transaction, the people do not have to what rights you sure you and make a big fuss.
Maintenance of property rights. Maintenance of property rights once legally defined property rights, there should be a matching maintenance measures. The State can, through legislation, to protect the legitimate property rights is prohibited to determine a person's property rights infringement and infringement determine the behavior of a property right to impose sanctions. These sanctions include collect taxes, fines, and have been violated by the subsidies. State and Property evaluation of the relationship
Under this arrangement, it is important to note that regardless of the definition of property rights, or maintenance of property rights, the state achieved through coercive means. Arrangements different from the market and enterprises, the state of such a system is characterized by its mandatory that countries have a comparative advantage in violence organization. "The violence is essentially an advantage, is also a resource." [3] in the country before the distribution of resources between the various regions and tribes. Countries, the national interests of the country's dominant groups, violence backed mandatory series of institutional arrangements, including the definition of property rights and property rights and maintenance. As can be seen, state violence is violence against violence, to deal with illegal violence legitimate violence, its legitimacy from the state-led groups to defend their interests against the legitimate rights of others against.
Dominant interest groups through this mandatory national institutional arrangements, resulting in the dilemma of the country, this is the "North Paradox": the state has a dual objective, on the one hand by the dominant groups to the different interest groups to different property rights access to maximize rental income; On the other hand, countries are also trying to reduce transaction costs in order to promote the maximization of social output, in order to gain the increase in state tax revenue. [4] the state of these two goals often conflict. Countries these two goals conflict is rooted in a conflict between the minimization of transaction costs of property rights system established to maximize the interests of the dominant groups. Namely the establishment of property rights may not be conducive to the interests of the dominant groups to maximize the minimization of transaction costs. Because of the dominant groups for their own reasons, and different groups conflict of interest, the minimization of transaction costs and the interests of the dominant groups to maximize between the relationship of the inverse function.
Property rights theory and the theory of the state constitute interrelated theoretical system, the nature of the state determines the nature of the property rights system, property rights system, which requires the State providing the definition and maintenance of a series of institutional arrangements.

[1] Barzel State Theory [M]. Shanghai University of Finance and Economics Press, 2006.
Structure and Change in Economic History [2] Douglas Northrop [M]. Shanghai Joint Publishing, 1991.
[3] the Erice Kofi Dennis Lui Dayton, Rudolf the Rui Qiete. Douglas Northrop: transaction costs, institutional and economic history [A] Shanghai Finance University Press, 1998.
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