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The formation and development of the Qing Dynasty Yunnan salt law system and industrial and commercial town

Author: XuJianPing WenZhengXiang From: www.yourpaper.net Posted: 2010-06-01 18:26:56 Read:
[Key words] Yunnan salt   law; commercial town of
[Abstract] Yunnan in Qing Dynasty, salt tax revenue is an important pillar of local finance, the development of the salt of the formation of the new climax.The development of salt industry, promote the development of social economy in Yunnan, it is particularly important to the main mineral area, the growth of a large number of commercial town.The town is a new city different from traditional political cities, they appear to reflect the X- business development level, but also greatly promoted the development of social economy.And all of this with the Qing government in Yunnan is closely related to the legal system of the salt industry.
As the frontier ethnic regions, Yunnan since ancient times to salt is one of the most important source of revenue, known as the "Southern Yunnan big government, but the copper salt".Therefore, Chinese government attaches great importance to the salt administration of Yunnan province.To the Qing Dynasty, the exploitation of salt well in Yunnan has reached a new climax, add salt 20, forming a new pattern of production in Yunnan, western Yunnan, southern Yunnan three major producing areas, and established the partition management mode.The development of salt production, not only increased the Yunnan fiscal revenue, promote the development of social economy in Yunnan, it is more important for some emerging towns formed in the main mineral area.The town is not the traditional political city, but economic factors lead to industrial and commercial towns, therefore their appearance, has a very important historical significance to the development of Yunnan city and social development.Which in turn with the Qing government in Yunnan is closely related to the legal system of the salt industry.
The main content of in Yunnan during the Qing Dynasty, salt law system
The Qing Dynasty in Yunnan with the specialized agencies and officials with salt, the salt production, sales, quality standards, price management.Of course, in each period, the legal system and the change of salt.
(a) management mechanism
At the beginning of the Qing Dynasty, Yunnan's prime minister from the Yunnan-Guizhou governor, and consists of an inspection case Yushi supervision, then set the salt road, as a specialized agency in charge of the province's salt, and salt with a dedicated management staff, such as lifting, salt, salt, Faku ambassador.
(two) management policy
1 at the beginning of the Qing Dynasty business contractor sales system.At the beginning of the Qing Dynasty, the main characteristics of Yunnan salt industry legal system is to take the free policy of Yunnan salt industry, "annals of Yunnan" said: "I to suit one's measures to local conditions......The state-owned bank of the course, and stove fried stove sold, Democratic People pin, legislation before the generation of super Yi, also special to him."When the black salt of the lead salt system "Dian salt was not part of the draft, as well to the ticket, merchant exercises after class" l3J is the most representative of the government, the only purpose is to tax.Although the specific circumstances of each well is different, but in this period, the overall Yunnan salt laws and policies is the contractor pin, the government does not monopolize salt.From the number of columns, and the roughly equal, so the "Chinese history" set: at the beginning of the Qing Dynasty, was recorded to profit or loss. That old, black salt, white salt well, well, well, A Nerai Lang, a humble, well, old well, MI manhole, Jingdong well, all nine district J.
The establishment of 2 transport and sales system.Since Kangxi in the middle of the Qing government, transport and sales system of Yunnan salt industry, by the government of salt production, transportation, sales overall control, namely in the production link and implement the government-supervised and fried, circulation link executive transport, while in the trading market is executive monopoly system, so as to realize the government of salt monopoly.Of course, the large area set up transport and sales system time is not consistent.Area of West Yunnan, Central Yunnan is a traditional Yunnan salt production areas, so this system established earlier.While the southern region, because many systems of new wells, since Yong Zheng after the stand pipe design, special officer in charge, changed the original "barbarians from the decentralized management situation of fried food".Despite the existence of a variety of abuse of the feudal autocracy under the "salt" economic system, but can not be denied, to provide for oneself, closed behind the frontier minority areas, it is the dominant, it may put the salt resources development into an industry, and the development of local salt resources development and social economy have a positive role.Therefore, this policy for a century.
The establishment of 3 stove fried stove selling system.In the transport and sales system salt, salt production and sales by different department, which will make the production and sale of out of touch, not the development of salt industry.Therefore, Jiaqing five years (in 1800), the central government regulations Yunnan salt all kitchen household fried salt, kitchen household sells, Democratic People pin, this is in fact the transport and sales system prior to the replacement by the marketing way, this system is also known as the "kitchen frying stove sold, people trafficking people pin".At the same time, the abolition of the previous as well the delimitation of sales, prices adjusted by the market, therefore, "the draft of history of Qing Dynasty" cloud: "the method of volume one hundred and twenty-three regardless of business people, are many tickets.Regardless of how well salt, salt sale regardless of where, after listening to the.The well is fried real, the quota are mo stalls syndrome, than as overflow course, do sign as solution, all votes received class matters, that belongs to the well assistant manager."At the same time, brine by government assigned to the stove, the administrator to booking amount, well except salt tickets, tickets issued by tax, other production, transportation, sales are handled by the stove users and vendors, thus changing the production from the phenomenon, the salt production and sales to the relative coordination.In this system, the functions of the government to reflect the more macro management, which is more in line with market laws and economic laws.
To establish 4 official selling system.At the end of the Qing Dynasty, the central government of Yunnan salt again established official selling system, which is decided by the historical background of the time.On the one hand, the Western powers in the succession of Yunnan surrounding Burma, Vietnam, Laos and other country into its colony, carried out extensive economic penetration and invasion of Yunnan.Will be a large number of private salt sales people in Yunnan border area is an important part of his economic aggression.The salt can into the Yunnan sales of large, the main reason is that the price of salt is salt price in Yunnan.Yunnan is located in inland areas, external traffic is out-of-the-way, long-term since the existence of market "isolated" status, and Yunnan salt is salt, due to backward technology, mining, frying than sea salt is difficult, and thus the cost is high, the output is not large, salt production is difficult to meet the daily needs of life.Therefore, Yunnan has always been a "pound of salt bucket meter".According to records of the Tang Dynasty fan Chuo "pretty book" and "the travels of Marco Polo", from the Tang Dynasty to Yuan Dynasty, Yunnan salt also acts as a currency long-term, signifying its socio-economic importance with the price of the firm.To the Qing Dynasty, even Kangxi and Qianlong period, the salt is the shortage of land, "Yunnan Province, wide, a daily increase in population, the salt is not enough".The resulting salt price expensive, per 100 kg of salt prices in 4 more than two, leading to the people can not afford to eat salt, the Qianlong reign (1736) an imperial edict "governor Yin Jishan's office will be ready, earning a shall be eliminated, the salt price deflator.Though expensive, also can only be below three two.If after the cut earnings, the public has not enough, further action on wedding".Also is the national legal Yunnan salt price shall not exceed 3 per 100 kg two silver, also adjustable Sichuan, Guangdong salt flat salt price.This situation has continued to the Republic of china.Yunnan, Myanmar and other countries surrounding more due to the rich salt, the salt price is low and the Yunnan, "since the Burma, more not Jing, pay (i.e. Vietnam) Burmese salt price base in Yunnan Salt for several times, but this family and thus force the price of light.Listen to the trafficking, hawker invasion irrigation, they repel the "8.Its price advantage, natural can make the salt in Yunnan dumping at the same time, the Yunnan-Vietnam Railway, the traffic in Yunnan appeared to foreign than domestic provinces and more convenient conditions, difficult to traditional way Sagittarius transport compete with the modern way of transport, it creates convenient conditions for the influx of a large number of foreign salt.Therefore, to the late Qing Dynasty has a thousand catties foreign salt into the pin Yongchang, Shun Ning, Ling'an, Kaihua, Guangnan and Yunnan border area _9J, led to the emergence of Teng (wash) long (Ling) bank "of each division are food Burma salt, a leakage in three million five hundred thousand yuan" of the situation.On the other hand, Xianfeng, Tongzhi years Yunnan agency Wenxiu uprising, flames of war spread to the western, central, southern, and these are the production of salt heavy.Damage to the salt production of war is huge, led to the shrinking of Yunnan salt production capacity.
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