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On the influence of leadership on employee trust and loyalty.

Author: HeShaoFang From: www.yourpaper.net Posted: 2010-06-01 04:08:49 Read:
[Abstract] how to obtain the trust of subordinates and loyalty? Is it any business leaders are very concerned about the problem of.This paper found based on employee survey: leading the way the different cause of differences under the leadership of trust and loyalty, benevolent leadership and moral leadership to promote trust and loyalty improve, authoritarian leadership on Subordinates Trust role is very limited.
[keyword] leadership trust, loyalty and

1 Introduction
For any enterprise leaders, obtained under the loyalty and trust are their "dream of" the desire, the desire is so urgent but it is so difficult to achieve, so that if a subordinate asked "why should I trust you?" "why do I want to be loyal to you" when, leadership often make it difficult to react most people, in their subconscious, which seems to be the most probably it did not actually happen question -- "if I gave you a meal to eat, you should be faithful to me".But the answer is so simple? Just assign work, paid can win their loyalty and trust? To the surprise of many, the interaction process of trust and loyalty mainly comes from subordinates and leaders, the main driving factor is the leadership and management.Chinese people increasingly want to superiors is not only the distribution of work, but the use of the art of management, to create a good environment, to motivate employees to create high performance and fully display his talents.
The core problem discussed in this paper is: from the subordinate's point of view, the trust and loyalty to the leadership which style of leadership.Because of the cultural background and social customs are different, we can not blindly follow the leadership theory developed by Western background.If the theory apply mechanically to the enterprise management, not only can not objectively reflect the local leadership of the original appearance, the wrong person, but also have a major problem will in practice.Therefore, based on the local culture as the background, using the standardized research framework, firstly, leadership, trust and loyalty classification and manifestation, secondly, on the basis of the survey on the use of structural equation model to analyze the effects of leadership on subordinates' trust and loyalty.

The 2 leadership and employee trust, loyalty and
The 2.1 leaders classification and manifestations of
Local enterprises leadership style, closer to the "rule of man in a kind of atmosphere, showing discipline and authority, paternalistic and kindness and moral integrity of leadership" (Fan Jingli, Zheng Boxun, 2000).This and the western leadership style is completely different, similar to the "parents" style of leadership includes three types.The three most common types in our current enterprise, it is the most popular.Benevolent leadership: leaders of subordinate individuals do individual, comprehensive and long-term care, including to subordinate individual care and make allowance for the acts of mercy.Moral leadership: leaders make oneself an example, by virtue of the leadership, do the example, which under the influence character by environment.Authoritarian leadership: leadership emphasizes its authority is absolute, not challenge; the subordinate will be strictly controlled, request the subordinate unreservedly to obey.The specific forms of these three leadership styles such as shown in table 1.
2.2 of the leading emotional trust and cognitive trust
The laws and regulations of the principle of trust compared to western, Chinese specific cultural structure makes trust produces more specific individuals associated.Therefore, Chinese enterprises internal trust more is understood as for mutual cooperation between individuals hold confidence (Li Xinchun, 2005).Especially for the formation of trust between leaders and subordinates process, in the long-term work contacts, for their mutual cooperation with a certain degree of confidence and understanding, everyone will be classified according to the relationship of trust each other with their own, and a dynamic trust management.This trust classification and management often comes from two aspects: emotion and reason.
On the leading emotional trust contains individual emotional bond of trust relationship.Between leaders and subordinates will emotionally invested in the relationship, namely trust from selfish motives, said make altruism and ask for nothing in return for their trust.This kind of emotional connection has led subordinate basis of mutual trust, emotional trust in fact implies the elements of Goodwill Based on.At the same time, to leading a cognition-based trust is composed of the subordinate competence and responsibility for leaders must.Work intercourse and leadership, this trust comes from the understanding of the leadership of professional and technical, leadership ability, reliability and dependability.
The 2.3 leading loyalty classification and manifestations of
Loyalty is always paid attention to the subject of enterprise management, and evaluation of important criteria and selection of subordinates.Its expression is the psychological attachment relationship between employees and specific supervisor.Under the background of loyalty concept with unique connotation is different from the western society."This concept is the biggest feature private loyalty than public loyalty", namely, for, on the specific personal loyalty to group may be greater than, organization, society, or even the legal norms of respect.So the leadership and loyalty to organization (enterprise) loyalty is of great difference.Private loyalty this special principles make subordinate to the leadership of the loyalty not only implies mutual trust, but also covers the following, identity (values, behavior criteria, such as loyalty, dedication, meaning).
Therefore, in the enterprise, the leadership of the faithful should mainly include the following aspects (Chen Zhenxiong, 1997): follow (have a strong attachment to the leadership, and he hopes to work together), hard (in order to leadership, willing to pay a considerable effort, dedication () as the leader willing to sacrifice their own interests, altruism sexual behavior), identity (have a high degree of recognition and respect for the leadership).

3 questionnaire survey and analysis of
The questionnaire survey of Guangdong Province for employees of private enterprises, the formal questionnaire survey in 2009 September to 2009 October were issued, and 800 questionnaires (25 enterprises), by using the method of staff at the scene to fill in the questionnaire to explore their directly under the leadership of the subjective attitudes and ideas.The recovery of 776 valid questionnaires (response rate 97%).Sample characteristics into educational level, job level, age, working years in the company and the department.After collecting the questionnaires, using SPSS and LISREL software to test the reliability and validity, verify that leadership style, trust, loyalty scale reliability coefficient (Cronbach ) is 0.909, 0.884, 0.939, excellent reliability.At the same time, the implementation of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, confirmatory factor analysis) to test the model validity (see Table 4), from the results, the model validity.Finally, structural equation model analysis of the corresponding relationship between the style of leadership and employee trust, loyalty.
The 3.1 leadership and employee trust
From the result of the model (Figure 1 and figure 3), to be able to trust have significant effects only benevolent leadership and moral leadership on employees.And this two kinds of leadership influence employee trust on the way are also different.Leadership on subordinates' "take care" and "make allowance for the mercy" (benevolence leadership), subordinates will show gratitude and return these two kinds of behavior, the result of the affective trust Leadership (path coefficient 0.61), but this concern and care can't let employees to recognize leadership competence and the sense of responsibility, so the cognitive trust the employees are still relatively low (path coefficient 0.23).
And moral leadership on subordinates' trust, on the contrary, for leaders show "integrity," not responsible "cheap", "selfless model" of SHUTER, subordinates will show the leader of the identity, thus convincing leader's value, and the leadership of reliability and
The dependence of the identity, the result of the cognitive trust of leadership (path coefficient 0.66).However, because the moral leadership is often form, lack of initiative communication and interaction, leadership and staff accordingly, the affective trust employees are still relatively low (path coefficient 0.36).
Interestingly, strict control of subordinates, request the subordinate unreservedly obedience to authority leadership on employee trust does not produce any help (path coefficient 0.03 and 0.12).So, if the employee trust in leadership, the best combination of benevolent leadership and moral leadership model.
The 3.2 leadership and employee loyalty and
Loyalty is a more recent than trust more complex concepts.Due to the measurement of our employee loyalty more is carried out from the point of view of the.So the conclusion though and above are similar, but there are still some differences.On the whole, effect of benevolent leadership on employee loyalty, as we mentioned above, benevolent leadership often need and staff to conduct a comprehensive and long-term interaction, this good relationship is long-term orientation, so benevolent leadership will produce high employee recognition (path coefficient 0.61), employee commitment (path coefficient 0.53) and employees follow (path coefficient 0.52), but we should also pay attention to, because the benevolent leadership also contains tolerance and protection (for example: he will do in every possible way to live longer subordinates, care), so some employees may also anticipate this situation, so as to reduce the work effort of their this is why, for moral leadership, employees "to" project coefficient of slightly lower (path coefficient 0.37).For moral leadership, the leaders show no favoritism (do not abuse their power for their own profit) and make oneself an example (i.e. ask subordinates do, he will first do) will significantly improve the subordinates follow desire (path coefficient 0.40) and the level of effort (path coefficient 0.47).Interestingly, although subordinates to follow the moral leadership, and work hard, but the employee recognition of moral leadership, moral leadership dedication to the desire is not very strong (and benevolent leadership contrast, path coefficient is 0.30 and 0.22).This is because although the external manifestation of moral leadership is very excellent, but the lack of leadership or long-term mutually beneficial relationship between subordinates.Because of this relationship is the foundation of emotional ties, the results will lead to "watch your subordinates while there is", "willing to follow you," rational expectations, but not necessarily will have "identity you", "emotional contact devoted to you".
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