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On Problems and Countermeasures of enterprise human capital management

Author: FuJianBo From: www.yourpaper.net Posted: 2010-05-31 17:53:15 Read:
In the era of knowledge economy, whether academic or business awareness of the importance of knowledge capital of enterprise internal resources in the more and more clear, "core competence" knowledge capital theory has been widely recognized based on the human capital, the knowledge and skills have become the core resources leading enterprise competitive advantage.But the theoretical and ideological identity is not equal to enterprise synchronization in the human capital management practices, due to its human capital itself, and the characteristics and properties of other capital is different, make the enterprise human capital management still exist many problems, for example, whether the company is through increased investment and development can the human capital to improve the core competitiveness of enterprises? How to effectively put the knowledge and skills of individual knowledge workers have transformed into the competitiveness of enterprises? In knowledge workers has become the enterprise human resources the mainstream today, how to improve the human capital of enterprise management level, enterprise capital investment and development, human constructing sustainable competitive advantage can not avoid the issue.

1 the human capital theory briefly reviews
Nineteen sixties, Theodore W Schultz and Gary S Becker pointed out that the traditional concept of capital is not complete, should include not only the physical capital, human capital and should be included in the scope of economics, the new one, they are regarded as the founder of the theory of human capital and the founder, and has won the Nobel Prize in economics.The theory of human capital has been regarded as a major development in twentieth Century economic theory in the western economics, American economist MJ Bauman called it "the economic history of the revolution".
The essence of human capital is condensed in the body of knowledge and skills, is the production of an ability to have economic value, in combination with the material capital, can create value, bring economic benefits to the owner of human capital.Human capital is not born with a person has innate, but acquired into a certain cost to obtain the knowledge and skills, process condensate is after the formation of human capital investment.
The characteristics of human capital: first, human capital exist in the human body, and the bearing are inseparable, this is the essence of human capital is different from other forms of capital characteristics.Therefore, human capital cannot be directly the sale, transfer, inheritance.Second, the formation of human capital and the effectiveness and the life cycle closely together, affected by the bearer of personal preference, bound by the strength, energy and life length and other natural conditions.Man is a perception of life, the pursuit of value, cognition and evaluation of the environment to determine its attitude and efforts, human capital is the energy potential, the subjective will affect the human capital contribution value.Third, the value of human capital is the timeliness and highly dynamic, skills and knowledge is constantly updated and innovation, to human capital investment, in order to adapt and promote social and economic development.Fourth, the human capital is not only a kind of economic resources, but also a kind of meaning of the more abundant social resources.The characteristic of human capital determines the human capital management of enterprise must according to its special, innovative management philosophy and management system, human capital and enterprise capital of any better together, create value and improve the competitive advantage for enterprises.
Knowledge and skills is the fundamental source of sustainable competitiveness of enterprises.The ability of root of enterprise to the knowledge, including the discovery of the market and identify market opportunities market knowledge, develop new products to meet the needs of market research and development capabilities, will be integrated into the personal innovation capability of new products to the enterprise production ability, knowledge of products to the market and the spread of knowledge.The combination of these knowledge and ability is the core ability of enterprise, is the source of knowledge is the enterprise competitive advantage and unique competitive tool.The existing stock of human capital of enterprise determines the ability to find the market and the allocation of resources, enterprise resource efficiency and effectiveness and the human capital is closely related.Therefore, we can say, human capital is the enterprise in the knowledge economy to deal with the key resources in complex environment variability, is the cornerstone to gain a competitive advantage to build the core competitiveness of enterprises (Qing Tao, Guo Zhigang, 2003).

2 enterprise human capital management in the problem of
Mention of core competitiveness, we have to review the characteristics of core competence again, Barry (1991) put forward four characteristics of sustainable competitive advantage is, value, scarcity, it is difficult to imitate, irreplaceable.From the characteristics of these four characteristics and human capital, we can draw the conclusion: the human capital is the source of sustainable competitive advantage! And then continue along this conclusion, then the enterprise to obtain sustainable competitive advantage requires human capital, it is necessary to the human capital investment and development.However, whether to increase human capital investment and development will certainly be able to improve the enterprise's core competitiveness and sustainable competitive advantage? This is a big problem this paper wants to discuss.
We see from the characteristics and nature, human capital, human capital has a strong "individual" features, has a close relationship with the individual life cycle, emotion and perception as well as the individual's special environment.Enterprise as a special economic organization, is composed of individual human capital in a certain system and relationships, to achieve a common goal and the composition of an organization, is a "group".In other words, the human capital of the enterprise is an organic whole composed of individual human capital.Human capital is the key resource for the construction of enterprise core competence and competitive advantage, it is widely agreed, but the need is, I think, it is the human capital has the "group" concept, a concept as a whole, or that is a concept of "human capital", instead of "the concept of individual human capital".Why do we need for this particular two to clarify the concept, because it is the human capital investment and development of enterprise easily confused, if not properly understand and distinguish between "human capital" and "human capital", and the integration of individual human capital into organizational capital, then the enterprise may have on human capital investment would be invalid.If we cannot distinguish "human capital" and "human capital", so it is difficult for us to explain some enterprises have done a lot of investment in human capital, but still can not get the core competitiveness, and even raise the core competitiveness of their opponents in the human capital flow.
After the correct distinction between "human capital" and "human capital", problems of enterprise human capital management is how to enhance the "human capital" so as to enhance the core competitiveness of enterprises and sustainable competitive advantage through.From the Pali (1991) study we see, human capital will become the source of sustainable competitive advantage and core competitiveness, we must first is heterogeneous, and heterogeneity of value.This heterogeneity is not everyone has, not to be obtained easily, so as to create a unique value, to construct the unique competitive power for enterprises.In this sense, the human capital firstly must belong to the individual, and the individual uniqueness into unique organization, need some specific environment and conditions, or as intermediary variables, to "correct" identify the intermediary variables still need further study, but at least we must consider two the big question: heterogeneity and mobility of human capital.The two big problems in Pali (1991) and with particular emphasis on the research of enterprise management, especially from the view of human capital, has a strong practical instruction.First of all, how to solve the fusion problem of individual human capital heterogeneity and other enterprise capital.Individual human capital if not have heterogeneity, its unique value must be questioned and denied, but this heterogeneity exists integration and coordination problems and other individual human capital, corporate capital.Secondly, how to solve the liquidity problem of individual human capital.Individual human capital flows may cause enterprise capital loss, and even affect the sustainable development of enterprise organization, which is the important field of human resource management research.Countermeasures of enterprise human capital management in 3
Seen from the front analysis, to solve the heterogeneity of human capital and liquidity problems, to a certain extent, there is cross, liquidity problems on human capital, in the management of human resource has the mature solutions, other scholars also have many effective methods in this field, there are not more discussion.Therefore, to solve the heterogeneity problem has become the focus of enterprise human capital management.
Enterprise human capital heterogeneity management focus on three aspects, the first is the heterogeneity of how to motivate the human capital, the second is how to coordinate the heterogeneity of human capital, the third is how to transform the human capital heterogeneity.
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