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The middle-level managers of private enterprises psychological empowerment and turnover intention relationship

Author: JiLei From: www.yourpaper.net Posted: 2010-05-31 14:20:03 Read:
[Abstract] in this study, 266 private enterprise middle-level managers as the research object, investigated the psychological empowerment and turnover intention relationship status and characteristics; middle managers in private enterprise of psychological empowerment and employee turnover intention is discussed.
[keyword] the middle-level managers of private enterprises psychological empowerment turnover intention

Since the reform and opening up, the private enterprise has become an important and indispensable force the development of market economy in China, with China's accession to the WTO, the survival and development of private enterprises is confronted with hitherto unknown challenge, in this grim situation, middle managers of private enterprises abnormal turnover but it is often seen.; middle-level managers are the backbone of enterprises, bear the important role of corporate decision-making, execution of strategy and grassroots and decision-making layer communication etc..Their work is connecting, characteristics and good, and they both managers and managers, have rights and responsibilities.To a certain extent, a business is good or bad depends on the middle-level manager's performance; middle managers loss, will bring great loss to enterprises.Therefore, research on the middle-level managers become represent the general trend.

1 concepts of

1.1 psychological empowerment
Early authorization mainly from the enterprise point of view, focuses on the study of enterprise authorized measures, including the reduction of management decision-making level, granted under the decision-making authority, for subordinates to provide information and resources.This authorization is the core of the authorization as power granted and resource sharing.However, recent studies found that, in practice, more and more enterprises adopt authorized management measures, but the effect is not obvious authorization.Conger from the psychological point of view is to enhance the perception of authorization process among members of the organization of self-efficacy, namely through formal and informal organizational practices can provide efficacy information technology to eliminate the employees "unauthorized" feeling, so as to enhance the process of self-efficacy.Thomas first proposed the concept of psychological empowerment based on Conger definition, that psychological empowerment can increase the internal task motivation of individuals, including four dimensions: the meaning of work, work ability, job autonomy and influence.Spreitzer (1995) on the basis of this concept, the development of the four dimension scale to measure employee psychological empowerment.

1.2 turnover intention
About his research can be traced back to the early twentieth Century, the economists.50's in last century, western literature on employee turnover behavior and turnover intention is becoming more and more mature, the emergence of a large number of turnover behavior model.Turnover intention refers to employees in the turnover behavior before the psychological state, namely that they generate turnover idea or desire.

2 methods of
Subjects were 2.1
The investigation of 20 private enterprises in Hangzhou, 350 questionnaires, 298 questionnaires, 266 valid questionnaires, efficiency 89.3%.
2.2 research tools for

1) psychological empowerment questionnaire
The revision of the master's thesis in the middle-level managers of private enterprises psychological empowerment questionnaire, 5 point Likert score, composed by four dimensions of work significance, autonomy, self-efficacy, influence, the total reliability of questionnaire 0.82, four dimensions of reliability coefficients were: 0.83, 0.78, 0.74, 0.88, the reliability is good.

2) turnover intention questionnaire
Revised by Liang Kaiguang turnover intention questionnaire, 7 point Likert scoring.Questionnaire reliability coefficient 0.78 reliability is good.
In the course of the survey, commissioned by the private enterprise human resources director to assist the measure, and inform the questionnaire note; data entry and processing using SPSS15.0.

3 results and analysis of
3.1 questionnaire investigation of the quality of
The Amos5.0 questionnaire using confirmatory factor analysis, the private enterprise of psychological empowerment questionnaire confirmatory factor analysis showed that RMSEA 0.083, CFI, TLI respectively: 0.980, 0.941; turnover intention questionnaire is a factor three index model, analysis of confirmatory factor, is exactly the same recognition model, conclusions and research of Liang Guangkai, turnover intention questionnaire is a single dimension structure.
Psychological empowerment questionnaire reliability coefficient (Cronbach a) 0.834, the meaning of work, autonomy, self-efficacy, influence dimensions reliability coefficients were: 0.825, 0.801, 0.758, 0.878; turnover intention questionnaire reliability coefficient was 0.897.
From the reliability and validity analysis showed that two were of good quality, is an effective tool for measuring the private enterprise middle-level managers psychological empowerment and turnover intention.
3.2 middle-level managers in private enterprise of psychological empowerment status of
Through the analysis on the middle-level managers of private enterprises psychological empowerment factors and overall and descriptive statistics, to understand the general characteristics of psychological empowerment, the results show: the average score of middle-level managers in private enterprise of psychological empowerment of each factor are the fluctuations in the 4, higher than 3.50, the overall psychological empowerment; average close to 4, higher than 3.50, shows that psychological empowerment degree in the medium level above.See table 3.1.

3.3 middle-level managers in private enterprise turnover intention status of
The middle-level managers of private enterprises turnover intention at slightly above 3.50, because this questionnaire with 7 point scoring, so the middle-level managers of private enterprises in the average turnover intention (4.50), low level of turnover intention.See table 3.1.
3.4 middle-level managers in private enterprise of psychological empowerment analysis of demographic variables and
On the middle-level managers of private enterprises psychological empowerment were analysis of variance results in table 3.2; different gender of the middle-level managers of private enterprises exist significant difference in psychological empowerment, psychological empowerment degree is higher than that of females and males.The middle-level managers of private enterprises psychological empowerment differences of different working years significantly, showing a along with the working time increases gradually rising trend, and has significant difference, but had to stop the trend in more than 10 years of work, 10 years or above work experience of the middle-level managers of private enterprises psychological empowerment degree was significantly lower than that of middle-level managers in private enterprises 6-10 years, the middle-level managers in private enterprise 6-10 years are more likely to perceive the authorized strength.The middle-level managers of private enterprises psychological empowerment among different professional title is significantly, showing a higher professional titles of psychological empowerment trend of higher, middle managers of private enterprises and no title was significantly lower than the titles.

Correlation analysis of
3.5 middle-level managers in private enterprise of psychological empowerment and turnover intention
Through correlation analysis (see table 3.3): middle managers in private enterprise of psychological empowerment and employee turnover intention significantly negative correlation.Among them, four dimensions of the middle-level managers of private enterprises the significance of psychological empowerment, autonomy, self-efficacy, influence and turnover intention significantly negative correlation.Regression 3.6 middle-level managers in private enterprise of psychological empowerment and turnover intention analysis of
The forced into law on the middle-level managers of private enterprises psychological empowerment and turnover intention relationship between regression analysis to explore the predictive power of psychological empowerment.

From the table 3.4, the significance of psychological empowerment, autonomy, influence dimensions entered the regression equation, three dimensions were predicted variance in turnover intention 64.3%, among them the meaning of work had the strongest predictive power.From the standardized regression coefficient, there is a negative linear relationship between four dimensions of psychological empowerment and turnover intention, in accordance with the relevant conclusions of the analysis.Generally speaking, although the psychological empowerment in part unknown factors into the regression equation, the results showed: psychological empowerment are predictive variables of turnover intention.

4

Although managers are aware of authorization in the management practice in the role, but the survey found that, for the majority of private enterprises, only authorized is mere literal management provisions, the middle-level managers of private enterprises generally reflect the authorization is not clear, authorization can not be implemented; therefore the private enterprise managers, should work significance, autonomy, influence other aspects considered to improve the enabling environment, improve the level of psychological empowerment of middle-level managers.
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