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Discussion on modernity and economic history research

Author: FanGuo From: www.yourpaper.net Posted: 2010-05-31 03:14:38 Read:
Keywords: the study of economic history of modern rational individualism resource configuration
Abstract: so far, research on the modern theory mainly in philosophy, sociology and comparative literature.In this paper, based on the existing research achievements, the modern theory into the economic field, believes that modernity in individual values and behavior patterns, reflected in the rationalism and individualism; modernity in the resource allocation problem, reflected in the social order, legal order, property protection and the definition of property rights.To solve these problems will put by production factors in real economic life, and then act on the social economy, the social economy is likely to continue in the change, the social economy of different possible presents the development status, different implementations of different growth rate.The modernity theory into the field of social economy, which provides a new perspective for the analysis of economic change in real life, provides a unique analysis framework for understanding economic phenomena, the study of economic history.
, modern research overview of
Modern (Modernity) / modernization (modernization) is derived by modern and modern, from the Latin modernus, which has been popular in Europe in the fifth Century, meaning is different with the ancient, used to describe their own time, at the same time to the Rome and other non - the early Christian society as ancient.In eighteenth Century, after the Renaissance culture known as the modern culture, modernization and modernity have been given special content.The academia in recent centuries western, modem is mainly used for and the Middle Ages (Medieval Age) to distinguish.
Look in Anthony Giddens, Marx, Durkheim and Webb's theory belongs to the category of modern social theory of modernity, represents the basic paradigm of classical modernity theory.Reflection on Marx, Durkheim and the writings of Webb, Giddens systematically summed up three obvious line of classical theory of modernity, that capitalism, Industrialism and rational, based on the reconstruction of modernity theory paradigm.
Giddens thinks, the modernity first means "in feudal Europe established and has an impact on world history in twentieth Century has become the behavior system and the mode of" Modernity ", roughly equivalent to the 'industrialized world', the premise is that we recognize the industrialism is not only in the system dimension"."In the most simple form, modernity is the abbreviation of" modern society or industrial civilization, a detailed description of the words, to "(1) for a series of attitude, the world on the realization of open world to human interference caused by the idea; (2) the complex economic system, especially in the industrial production and market economy; (3) a series of political system, including the national and democratic".
Danilo Martuccelli believes that modernity refers to modern society and the modern era, "is always a full of anxiety, facing the relation reality, is to seek a kind of uneasy answer".Matei Calinescu thinks, modernity "is not only a kind of mental structure, but also to a certain attitude of knowledge", "knowledge is acquired through the hypothesis and verification, the knowledge of the process ideally should be free from the arbitrary any external authority and system, but also should get rid of personal beliefs and prejudices".S.N. Eisenstadt believes that modernity should "be regarded as a unique civilization in essence, has the system and the unique cultural characteristics, the core of modernity is the forming and development of one kind or many kinds of way to explain the world, forming and developing is a unique social imagination, open the unprecedented and uncertainty is the core of cores".Andrew Feenberg believes that modernity is a concept, a paradox. On the one hand, it refers to the modern science and technology, all kinds of democratic regime and city of things generally completed.On the other hand, modernity is built on a unique technology system expansion basis, it and traditional are opposite, and they use a technique culture reasonable replace sb.Zygmunt Bowman believes that the essence of modern scientific spirit, rational calculation of moral neutrality, social management of the engineering tendency.Nigel Dodd believes that modernity as a general term to use, belonging to the engineering specifications, and engineering specifications can be defined as a belief system, it somehow relates to the improvement of social role.Voegelin believes that the essence of Western modernity is "Gnosticism", the core factor is, experience the world as a man lost in the foreign land, people must find back what he has in the world the way.Shi Huaci believes that the core of modernity is a kind of "Faust momentum (FaustianSpirit)".An unlimited desire to pursue knowledge at all costs, it affects every aspect of modern culture.
Understanding to modernity is benevolent see benevolence, the wise see wisdom.Someone from the origin of modernity, some people think that the modernity is a rational scientific revolution or economic technology, people emphasize the change of social ethics, liberate the individual from human or supernatural authority, some people think that the core of modernity is to promote human equality, some people believe that the rise of national the dominant doctrine.Some modern Description: Historically, modernity is usually refers to the history of the west, more specifically, refers to the history of Europe, and in a moment also refers to North American history."In those expressly embrace modernity -- Modernity to them means rational, democratic, believe that open social and political pluralism, respect the individual value, the advantages of highly competitive market system etc.".Some scholars in and "modernization" control to understand modernity, modernity and modernization ".Modernization refers to the process of transformation, is a dynamic process, the results can not be expected; modernity refers to the aroused by the modernization and the outcome of the corresponding state of mind and face"."Webb put the rational modernity as the center, very persuasive".The modernity of modern society lies in its rational development, Wu Chengming this view is, "I thought, before the better theory, this view is acceptable".
Simmel and Webb will all instrumental rationality is defined as a form of economic calculation.Webb thinks, application of instrumental rationality in the management and accounting work is an important factor in the development of capitalist market.In modern society, showing a rational form of organization is the primary condition of modern capitalism.On the relationship between economic, national and cultural asked, Webb analyzed a side, that the rational power these relations more from the accounting procedure and market expansion.Rationalization of modern capitalism in daily life to establish a rational basis of faith, people rationally believe these principles, these principles in turn through the calculation to guide people's behavior.
In the new classical economics, there is a kind of abstract and instrumental method, the best expression of it is the economic reasoning characteristic.Webb in the context of social action is called objective rationality, which can be defined as the calculation of the action, the goal is to obtain a specific purpose by the most effective means.Another reason is the specific application and value judgment and political commitment, this form of social action is the rationality, value rationality action can be defined as a dominated by overriding ideal action.Webb according to formal rationality and substantial rationality expressed understanding of the dual rational.Formal rationality is the highest efficiency reaches a predetermined target or the most effective way to the extreme; substantive rationality requirements based on value rationality or substantive rationality to target for those economic action -- although it is in the correct calculation of the sense belongs to formal rationality -- measurement.
Discusses Habermas to deepen the rational understanding, he will be rational as duality, reason has two dimensions.The tools and communication.This echoes with the two parallel and characteristics of the development mode of modern society: technological progress and the moral progress.Habermas believes that the development of modern society is decided by the basic logic rationality.Rational process presents two main models, each of which has its own logic.The first from the tool rational growth, second from the value rationality, also known as communication and rational growth.The tool rational growth led to economic and technical progress in modern society, communication and rational growth caused the entire society to achieve a higher level of morality and political maturity.
Expression of two, the modernity in the economic field
Modernity in the field of economy from two aspects, one is the individual idea and behavior mode, two is the allocation of resources related issues.
"Rational play a role in human affairs, of freedom of the individual is rational carrier, such an idea is the theme of social scientists in twentieth Century, inherited from the Enlightenment philosophers in the most important".Modernity in individual values and behavior mode is mainly embodied in the rationalism and individualism.Needs to be noted that, where individualism cannot be simplified as a single track of self interest
O.Individualism and individual is not the same, individual enables individuals to be free to express their feelings, and social, and individualism contains depends on the social real expression of ideas.More detailed expression is, this is reflected in the modern rational, individualism and socialization.
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