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Analysis of technological innovation commercialization process risks and their social security contributions

Author: ZhuMingZhu From: www.yourpaper.net Posted: 2010-05-30 01:30:01 Read:
Paper Keywords: the innovation commercialization of innovative risk-sharing longitudinal horizontal social social security contributions
Abstract: domestic and foreign scholars have different views commercialization of technological innovation process and innovation risk. From the point of view of technological innovation power sources, the analysis pointed out that the technology to promote innovation risk is the integration of risk, capital risk and market risk; demand-driven the next innovative risk mainly technical risk and financial risk management decisions; include both interactive case risk, organizational risk, business tip risk. Society through technological innovation has put forward the need for innovation and risk social security contributions, and gives the the vertical social transfers sharing and horizontal social Joint-sharing schemes.
A technological innovation commercialization process and innovation Summary of risk theory
The technological innovation commercialization is the sparks of a new technical ideas to reflect the new technology, product or process the advent of a series of processes Sichuan. Different scholars have different views on the process of technological innovation: Harvard University N. Abernathy and the Massachusetts Institute of Jame M. Ut-terback (1970's) A-U innovation model based on the technology life cycle upcoming innovation activities broken down into the fluid phase, the transition phase and stable phase; Robert G. Cooper (1986) comprehensive study of the history of the 123 252 new products, new product plans 7 steps, which produce new ideas preliminary assessment, a technical concept, the development of engineering, design and principle, experimental, test products and experimental market, mass-produced and put into the market Vijay K. Jolly (1997) on IBM, ICI ;, Raychem, Sony and other dozens of new technology commercialization success and failure examples of research and analysis, commercialization of new technologies by the idea of ??the new technology, incubation, demonstration, promotion and sustained five sub- 4 link in the chain between the processes and sub-processes. Domestic scholars, Professor Wu Xiaobo, based on the participation of developing countries in global competition laws and characteristics of secondary innovation process model, the dynamic model in the framework of the global market demand and competition in four stages completed, that is imitative innovation, creative imitation, improved innovation and quasi-an innovation. Tsinghua University, Professor Fujia Ji, think, technological innovation entrepreneurs for commercial gain as the goal, the introduction of new products, new production (process), open up new markets, new raw materials or semi-finished products supply source or the establishment of a new organization, it is a range of activities including technology, organization, commercial and financial process.
Technological innovation risk is limited due to the uncertainty of the external environment, technological innovation projects the difficulty and complexity and novelty of the subject's own ability to lead innovation activities suspended, revoked, failure or up to the possibility of less than expected economic and technical indicators. This domestic and foreign scholars have carried out many studies: U.S. Multicam (1982) U.S. industrial technological innovation throughout the study, obtained eight major risk factors determine the success of high-tech innovation projects: the acquisition of knowledge of the market, the designation of the technology, organization and coordination of development, the importance of marketing, innovation management, the marginal contribution of early market entry, the proximity of technology and market new products and existing products; Schewe, Germany (1994) summarizes the scholars from various countries discrimination findings, the key factors to the success from the vertical fall into three categories: R & D-related factors, the production of relevant factors and market-related factors; domestic scholar Dr (2005), technological innovation allocation of risk factors on the success or failure of new product development decision risk, systemic risk, financial risk, corporate culture risk, market risk and technical risk, and each type of risk prevention measures; INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (2005) from the point of view of system theory for the enterprise network environment cooperation between the risk of technology innovation launched a deep analysis, he built the risks of technological innovation of complex systems innovation risk is defined as environmental risk, IT risk, market risk, collaboration, risk analysis, and on this basis, the conduction between the different types of risk mechanism.
2 different power sources in the innovation process risk analysis
Risks generated in the process of technological innovation for innovation success or failure of the relevant foreign authorities the statistical study pointed out that Sichuan, even in highly developed market economy of the United States, the success rate of new product development is not high: Consumer Industrial new product design, development success rate of 50% success rate of 45% of industrialization pilot production of new products, consumer market of new products a success rate of 70% the last combined success rate of only 16% or so. Visible to strengthen risk control, new product development and reduce the risk of new product development is an effective way to improve the success rate of innovation activities. In this paper, on the basis of previous studies, from the point of view of technological innovation power source the wheat, to study technology-driven, demand-driven, and the interaction effect under technological innovation commercialization process risks.
2.1 technology to promote innovation process risk
Technology-driven innovation model refers to R & D and scientific discovery is the main source of innovation, technological innovation is a linear process triggered by technological achievements. This type of innovation activities are mainly produced in the high-tech industry or science-based industries, such as computers, instrumentation, machinery and equipment, as well as pharmaceutical, chemical and other fields. The innovation process is shown in Figure 1. For fundamental research undertaken by universities, government research institutions, as well as internal research department. Main risks of such innovation is the integration of risk, capital risk and market risk. Integration risk refers to the results of basic research applied to the uncertainty generated in the course of their respective fields, influencing factors including the applicability of the results of basic research and development, applied research and development, operability, availability of research as well as the ability to digest. Funding risk is the risk that the financial risks of innovation activities may lead to fracture of the capital supply the whole innovation plan termination, the risk occurs mainly in applied research and development and production of two stages. The contradiction between the sustainability of the market uncertainty of income and innovation activities to stimulate venture capital investment in the course of the game. Market risk is the uncertainty of the market and the size of customer demand uncertainty, the uncertainty of the competitive advantage of the new products, product acceptance time and product life, the uncertainty of market development, the letter from the seven chess Tian Qing varies caused by wind.

2.2 demand the main risk in the innovation process
Innovative model of demand market is the source of R & D concept, and excited to find technical solutions to meet the needs of R & D activities. Was first used by J. Schmookler in 1966, his four industries of the U.S. oil refining, paper making, railway and agricultural investment, the relationship between the output and the number of patents in these industries were investigated and found that these industries The change in output ahead of the changes in the number of patents, patent activity (ie inventive activity), is basically the pursuit of profit economic activity by the guidance and constraints of the market demand, the role of market-driven innovation activities significantly Ren. The innovation process is shown in Figure 2. The main risk of such innovative technical risks and financial risks. Technical risk from uncertainty and the technological level of competence, the constituent elements of two types: the technology itself, including technical feasibility, reliability of the technology, advanced technology, technology can replace resistance, the difficulty and complexity of the technology, the life cycle of the technology, the market potential of the technology, the spread of technology degree of difficulty; business-related technology development capability, technical information, the availability of assistive technologies supporting technological achievements protection. The funding risk arises primarily in the development and production of two stages.

2.3 The interaction of technology and market innovative risk
Simple technology push and demand-pull is the exception, Rosen-berg: science and technology as a fundamental development of the knowledge base, and the structure of the market demand in innovation plays in an interactive way important role in innovation activities jointly decided by the demand and technology, decided to demand the return on innovation, technology determines the likelihood of success and cost, so this kind of innovation to better reflect the actual situation. If the individual just from the technology push and demand-pull innovation risk, the risk of such innovative universal significance, in addition to the above-mentioned risks, including the risk of strategic decision-making, organizational risk, management risk, human resources risk, production risk, investment risk, business risk, marketing risk circle.
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