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The foreign agricultural catastrophe insurance management and reference

Author: ZhangXiLing From: www.yourpaper.net Posted: 2010-05-29 18:37:22 Read:
Keywords: the agricultural catastrophe insurance legal system of catastrophe insurance fund
Abstract: China's agriculture catastrophe is frequent and serious consequence, agricultural catastrophe caused heavy losses to the lives and property of the people, but at present our country has not establish agricultural catastrophe insurance system, farmers face agricultural catastrophe, the lack of basic production and guarantee of life.Our country should learn from the advanced experience of the development of catastrophe insurance in foreign countries, speeding up the legislative work of agricultural catastrophe insurance, establish the dispersion mechanisms at various levels of risk, the establishment of agricultural catastrophe insurance fund, gradually building a complete catastrophe insurance system under the harmonious society.
, problem
China is an agricultural catastrophe occurs frequently and its consequences are serious country.Since the founding of new China, generally speaking, the crops affected in the general area of 40 in case of 47000000 hectares, 3000000 houses collapsed.Coupled with the other losses, the annual direct economic losses caused by natural disasters as 400 billion 50000000000 yuan, year loss of more serious disaster.In nineteen ninties, agricultural catastrophe occurs more opportunities, high frequency of disasters, loss.At the beginning of 2008, the occurrence of 5O years of freezing rain and snow disaster in China, agriculture suffered huge economic losses.21 provinces affected by the disaster, the crops disaster area more than 200000000 acres, more than 30000000 acres of pasture area.But this disaster insurance claims of nearly 2000000000 yuan less than the total losses of snow 2%.The problems of agriculture catastrophe risk seriously restrict the development of agricultural insurance in China, once the underwriting, when the agricultural catastrophe occurs, the insurance company may be facing a major crisis, even will go bankrupt therefore, study and draw lessons from the developed countries on agricultural catastrophe risk protection of the basic system and management experience, established and important significance as soon as possible
Comparative analysis of two, the international experience of
The operation mechanism of foreign catastrophe insurance as the angle of view, analyzes from the aspects of legal construction, the main underwriting, risk sharing and the responsibility of the government, in order to provide valuable experience for our country to establish and perfect effective agricultural catastrophe insurance system.
(a) the perfect laws and regulations, a solid foundation for the agricultural catastrophe insurance system operation.
Catastrophe insurance more successful countries have enacted laws, regulations and relevant, so that the whole insurance system can in accordance with the law terms specific to the establishment of implementation.This provides a strong guarantee for the successful operation of national catastrophe insurance.The United States Congress has promulgated a series of laws, in order to promote the development of national catastrophe insurance industry, such as "Federal Flood Insurance Law" (1956), "the National Flood Insurance Act" (1968), "flood disaster prevention law" (1973), "the flood insurance reform act" (1994).The Japanese government has also issued related to catastrophe insurance law, such as "disaster countermeasures basic law", "insurance law", earthquake.Japan in 1966, Congress enacted the "earthquake insurance law" and "earthquake reinsurance special accounting act".Then in order to encourage residential earthquake insurance, the Japanese government has promulgated the "earthquake insurance related laws", "insurance law" about the earthquake that the decree.The member states of the European Union, France, Norway, Spain, Sweden and Turkey and other countries to establish a compulsory catastrophe insurance system, through legislative means required to meet certain conditions of the insured must purchase.France in 1982 July promulgated the "THE FRENCH NAT SYS - TEM), establishing the safeguarding system for natural disasters.With the implementation of compulsory insurance, 1980, Norway parliamentary legislation to establish the natural disasters in Norway fund, and the provisions of all customers buy fire insurance must buy catastrophe insurance at the same time, premium income into the fund.The government of Turkey must also purchase mandatory earthquake insurance passed legislation requiring all registered city residential earthquake insurance clauses, and mandatory national unity, and the establishment of a national catastrophe reserve.
(two) the main characteristics of underwriting diversification, Federation of
The main underwriting catastrophe insurance is mainly divided into dominant, for insurance companies led by the government and the government and insurance companies to share three types.The catastrophe insurance only insured by insurance companies, the government does not assume insurance responsibility in the catastrophe insurance system.The United States of America in the face of catastrophe risk mainly establish the government launched the catastrophe insurance plan and the catastrophe risk and capital market integration in two ways.Japan established Business insurance company in cooperation with the government, private business and government subsidies to support the model.New Zealand earthquake risk is composed of three parts, including the earthquake Commission, insurance companies and Insurance Association, these institutions belong to government agencies, commercial and social institutions.
(three) the risk sharing and flexible
Britain's catastrophe insurance because all borne by the insurance company, and the government will not provide reinsurance catastrophe insurance support, therefore, insurance companies in Britain to provide catastrophe insurance, have asked the government to carry out flood control project construction large and provide assessment, disaster warning, meteorological data of catastrophe risk, public goods, in order to make catastrophe insurance loss control in the affordable range.That is to say, only in the government to perform the duties, the insurance company can provide catastrophe insurance.The British insurance company risk control of catastrophe insurance is mainly dependent on the flood control project on the government and scattered catastrophe insurance risk through reinsurance company.The United States government use of fiscal, taxation, reinsurance and emergency loans, particularly by means of agricultural catastrophe securitization to disperse and transfer of agricultural catastrophe risk, the operation of catastrophe insurance business insurance company is a member of the NNPP unit.Norway regulations, all the insured to buy fire insurance must buy catastrophe insurance at the same time, the insurance income into the fund.The role of the fund is mainly manifested in the following aspects: one is to disperse catastrophe risk leads to the loss in insurance companies; the two is the establishment of reinsurance mechanism for catastrophe risk; three is the establishment of a contract in the fund and member units to respond to natural disasters caused by the loss of a special Committee, responsible for the management of fund is owned by the the government.
(four) government participation patterns
Governments for their catastrophe insurance market mainly adopt three kinds of patterns: one is the voluntary participation mode.In this mode, the Business insurance company to provide catastrophe insurance, government act as spectator.In the catastrophe insurance market that, provided by private insurance to guarantee the catastrophe insurance, commercial operation and management.Two is the mandatory mode.The government is directly used as a leader in this kind of mode of operation, the catastrophe insurance provided directly by the government, often take compulsory insurance or other benefits linked to half compulsory form.Three is a comprehensive model.In this model, which can be represented by the government, the Business insurance company and academics together form a catastrophe insurance management institutions.Commercial operation of the insurance company is responsible for the catastrophe insurance, the government is responsible for providing policy support, the establishment of a national catastrophe reserves, looking for international financial support.
three, the reference to our country
Based on absorbing the experience of foreign catastrophe insurance, combined with China's current social and economic development, the author thinks, China should establish the commercialization as the foundation, the perfect laws and regulations system as guarantee, government policy support mandatory agricultural catastrophe insurance system as an important driving force.In this process, the following aspects should not be ignored:
(a) to accelerate the legislation of agricultural catastrophe insurance, historical experience to promote the distribution system according to China's agricultural catastrophe insurance market demand, natural disasters and the occurrence and development of the catastrophic insurance, considering the economic development situation of macro economy and regional, in absorbing and referring to foreign experience of catastrophe insurance legal system, accelerate the legislation of agricultural catastrophe insurance, establish the legal system with Chinese characteristics agricultural catastrophe insurance.
(two) establish the dispersion mechanisms of multi-level risk, promote the benign development of agricultural catastrophe insurance the insurance company of agriculture catastrophe insurance is different from the general insurance, risk the risk existence and normal insurance risk in different ways, the underwriting amount is larger, the greater risk is, the insurance company exists to expand insurance coverage and reduce the contradiction between risk, therefore, agricultural catastrophe insurance business must have diversified risk approach.From the practical experience of foreign catastrophe insurance, risk dispersing mechanism can not be neglected the insurance system, in addition to the investment of disaster prevention engineering and reinsurance and other traditional means of risk control, the developed countries of the catastrophe risk securitization trend, and by using the mature capital market development of a series of insurance derivatives, enhance the insurance company's risk management ability.Therefore, our country should deepen with the perfection of capital market and financial reform, establish the dispersion mechanisms at various levels of agricultural catastrophe risk.
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