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Analysis of multinational research and development of the regional innovation system in Zhongguancun analysis

Author: DaiRuiHong TianMin From: www.yourpaper.net Posted: 2010-05-28 23:49:49 Read:
Paper Keywords: Transnational Zhongguancun Regional Innovation System
Abstract: Transnational Corporations is an important carrier of the globalization of the world economy, following the globalization of trade, the globalization of production and financial capital globalization, the globalization of R & D multinational implementation of the global strategy is another important measure. Zhongguancun, because of its unique R & D strengths to become the gathering place of multinational R & D institutions, multinational R & D by the flow of knowledge and optimize the allocation of resources, can improve the Zhongguancun regional innovation capacity, improve the Zhongguancun regional innovation system. The Zhongguancun multinational R & D institutions, and analyzes the impact of multinational R & D institutions of Zhongguancun Regional Innovation System.
Since the 1990s, China foreign direct investment is undergoing rapid structural upgrade: upgrade from the early simple labor-intensive manufacturing activities to capital-and technology-intensive manufacturing activities, operational headquarters shifted from manufacturing to R & D institutions and regions expansion. Which multinational companies set up in China R & D institutions, to become one of the most striking phenomenon. Multinational R & D institutions began in 1994, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Northern Telecom research and development center in China, with the 1997 "encourage the establishment of Sino-foreign cooperative joint venture R & D center measures" introduced to set up R & D institutions, multinational companies in China set off a boom in recent years, showed accelerated growth. As of the end of 2007, the multinational companies in China to set up R & D institutions has reached 1160. According to the United Nations Conference on Trade Development (OECD) survey, 62% of multinational companies as its 2005-2009 set up overseas R & D institutions of first choice fields. Multinational companies to set up R & D institutions in China will have a profound impact on the area. Zhongguancun, for example, to analyze the impact of multinational companies in China research and development of regional innovation systems.
Zhongguancun transnational R & D Analysis
Research and experimental development research and development (R & D), in order to increase the stock of knowledge, the use of the stock of knowledge to the design of new uses, creative activities (1) carried out on the basis of the system development. Multinational R & D internationalization, is a multinational research and development activities spread to other location outside the home country, the use of scientific and technological resources of the countries, cross-border research and development activities.
Over 64,000 multinational companies are the world's leading organizers of the R & D activities, but also R & D globalization strategy implementers. According to UNCTAD (UNCTAD) World Investment Report "(2005), the world's total R & D expenditure in 2002 totaled $ 77 billion global business R & D expenditures totaled $ 450 billion, multinational R & D Expenditure in 3 ; $ 10 billion, accounting for 46% and 69% of the world's total R & D expenditures and business R & D total expenditure. From the start of the 1960s, multinational R & D experienced from infancy, the expansion phase to accelerate the development process of the mature stage of globalization, and its R & D target market gradually spread to the newly industrialized countries and developing countries from the U.S., Europe and Japan "Triangle" . Thus, multinational companies to seize the Chinese to set up R & D institutions Globalization of R & D needs.
Multinational companies to set up R & D center in Zhongguancun status quo, mainly as follows: (1) the rapid increase in R & D institutions. In the boom of multinational companies to set up R & D centers in Beijing Zhongguancun area has a unique and important position. Zhongguancun area is the development of high-tech industries in China the earliest and fastest growing region, but also the country's first multinational R & D centers gathering trend region-wide. In September 1995, IBM China Development Center was formally established in Zhongguancun, Microsoft China Research and Development Center, Novo Nordisk China Research Center, Bell Labs China Institute of Fundamental Research, Fujitsu Research and Development Center, Intel China Research Center, Motorola China Research Institute, Siemens R & D center and other well-known multinational companies have set up R & D institutions. As of 2007, the Zhongguancun Science and Technology Park has gathered more than 70 multinational R & D institutions. (2) the level of R & D has been increasing. Zhongguancun multinational R & D institutions, mainly from the United States, Japan, Europe and other developed countries and regions, research and development projects focused on ICT (Information and Communica-tions Technology), pharmaceutical and other high-tech fields, mainly engaged in science and technology research and development of cutting-edge technology, for example, the third generation mobile communication technology, computer networks, software development, a new generation of human-computer interaction technology, a new generation of wireless Internet technology, integrated system-on-chip technology. Multinational R & D, large-scale, high-level, remarkable achievements, developed by the R & D center technology has reached the advanced level in the world in the industry. (3) R & D content changes. Some R & D from research and development to the transfer of basic research and development. Since the 1980s, multinational corporations gradually basic research as one of the main features of the overseas R & D institutions. Overseas multinational companies take advantage of the location information technology development and scientific research personnel, reduce the parent company's technology development costs, but also promote the company ready access to the relevant technical information, track the latest developments of the worldwide engaged in basic research work. This means that multinational companies to set up R & D institutions in China motivation move out of the only research and development for the Chinese market positioning, product positioning development turned to global market development, and the location of the R & D institutions to become an important node in the multinational global strategy.
Zhongguancun regional innovation system development analysis
1 Regional Innovation System defined composition. Regional innovation system (Regional Innovation System RIS) draw on the theories and methods of the national innovation system, regional economic theory and innovation theory and research in a specific area of ??a domestic innovation. Professor Cook (Cooke) earlier described the regional innovation system, he believes the regional innovation system is mainly constituted by the geographical division of labor associated with production enterprises, research institutes and institutions of higher regional organizations , and this system support and to generate innovation River. Regional Innovation System broad and narrow sense, both inter-city regional innovation system, you can refer to a city of regional innovation system, can also refer to a Regional Innovation System for Science and Technology Park. Zhongguancun Regional Innovation System is a the narrow regional innovation system. According to the relevant research results at home and abroad, the basic elements of the regional innovation system can be divided into the main elements of the functional elements and environmental elements. The main elements of the innovation activities of actors, including companies, universities, research institutions, all kinds of intermediary organizations and local governments; functional elements of the contact between the actors and operation mechanism, including institutional innovation, technological innovation, management innovation mechanism and capacity; environmental factors refers to the innovation environment, including institutions, infrastructure, socio-cultural, psychological and security conditions.
2 Zhongguancun regional innovation system development. Compared with other science and technology park in the country, Zhongguancun has a very rich resources for innovation. This collection of Peking University, Tsinghua University, represented by the 68 colleges and universities, 213 research institutions as the representative of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, knowledge resources are very rich. Intensive universities and research institutions transportation for the Zhongguancun high-level talent, Zhongguancun gathered more than 500 academicians, college students more than 40 million people annually graduates more than 100,000 in Zhongguancun employees, have a college degree or above accounted for 67 intestines (1). Relying on these unique and innovative resources, Zhongguancun regional innovation system is gradually taking shape, but there are still some shortcomings.
First of all, the main elements of the regional innovation system should be the mainstay of technological innovation is the core of the regional innovation system. According to a study in 2003, Zhongguancun innovation the main structure is not reasonable, scientific research institutions both in funds or personnel to vote on the dominant, is to study the main force of development activities, but also produce the main source of scientific and technological achievements . In contrast, enterprises, whether in funds or personnel investment not only far below the research institutions, and too few innovations, enterprises have yet to truly become the main innovation. Secondly, the functional elements critical to the running of the regional innovation system, including innovation within the main body of sound operational mechanism and innovative body close and efficient cooperation mechanisms. Zhongguancun has yet to establish an effective cooperative mechanism. Belong to different departments and systems, the respective interests of the relationship between restricting exchanges and cooperation between research institutes and the lack of cooperation with enterprises, research and production out of touch. Universities and research institutions are able to provide scientific research, but the transformation rate is relatively low. Furthermore, the Zhongguancun environmental factors need to further improve the technology resources allocation lower degree of market elements, including human resources, technology, capital market development is not high, Technology efficient resource allocation mechanism has not yet formed, intermediary organizations relative lack of poor flow of information and so limit the the Zhongguancun regional innovation capability trapped.
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