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Analysis of gender difference in retirement age

Author: PanRuo From: www.yourpaper.net Posted: 2010-05-28 06:21:30 Read:
[Abstract] according to China's current retirement policy, the retirement age for men and women is 5 years or 10 years difference, whether it is for women to take care of or discrimination? In the economic and cultural background of the current, with a lag in 1978 formulated retirement policy, through the questionnaire, investigation of labor female and female intellectual attitude to retirement age, provide a realistic basis for the relevant policy adjustments in the future.
[keyword] retirement age; gender difference of

[Abstract] According to retirement of our country currently in effect policy, the difference there being existing for 5 years or in 10 in men and women retirement age, this is that giving consideration to the female still Jim-Crow after all? Background moves downwards in economy culture currently in effect, 1978 work out the policy retiring has certain lagging nature, the main body of a book is hoped by questionnaire law, the attitude to retirement age makes an investigation to the female who works and the knowledge female, basis adjusting the reality providing a relevance for policy the days to come.

[Key words] the Retirement age; Gender differences



1 review of the literature

The retirement age debate mainly focused on extending the retirement age and against extending the retirement age disputes.The main contradiction in the following aspects: life expectancy.The human resources.The support for the elderly.The aging of the population.The gender.Therefore, this paper hopes through the investigation on the labor of women and female knowledge, revealing their different attitudes to retirement age, provide the basis for future policy correction.


2 policy analysis

Analysis of 2.1 policy background.
Our men and women in the retirement age be treated differently, female retired early from male policy in 50 years to develop and implement, "is largely influenced by the former Soviet union".The original intention of the policy, one is beneficial to the reproduction of the population, two is to bear a heavy burden of population reproduction for the protection of the health of the mother.This policy was not much doubt.When the men and women have other retirement policy may be consistent with the social expectation and women demand.With the development of social productivity and progress of science and technology, our society has changed a lot, to the individual woman, population changes bring.First of all, the change of the idea, the environment of market economy, no longer work plan by the state distribution, the unit and the laborer two-way choice, which make people change labor values.Secondly, there are big improvements in the health of women, the average life expectancy of women has longer than men.Thirdly, enhance women's employment ability, the implementation of family planning policy, make the female reproductive burden lightened, women have been liberated from the heavy housework.The country nine years the popularization of compulsory education, women's cultural level higher, these women have more energy to work, also is the basis of work.
Visible, produced in the 50's and other retirement system reflect and in line with the prevailing social conditions, has certain rationality basis.To this day, the foundation has gradually disappeared.To implement this policy, the result is not the original intention of policy makers -- "the protection of women", and may be restricted to women, to hurt a woman.
Analysis of the legal significance of the 2.2 policy.
The sign of human civilization progress is as a member of society of women have access to employment and development rights.Equal participation in social production and economic activities and to obtain the corresponding income is the premise and foundation of women's rights to survival and development, for the vast majority of women, loss of economic independence, will lose the equal status in the society and in the family.Work is an important way to keep in touch with women and society, one of the basic forms as women's participation in social development.
In 2005 through the "women's rights and interests protection law" amendment, formally established as the basic state policy of equality between men and women in china.The so-called basic national policy, is the general policy of a nation to solve with a universal, global, long-term problems and determine the fundamental, the highest level in the national policy system, guiding and constraining effects on other specific policies, and provide the basis for policy coordination related field.From a policy perspective, the retirement age for men and women is on the differences of gender equality as a basic state policy violation.
Analysis of 2.3 policy implementation results.
Implementation of male high female low retirement age, the impact on women in many aspects.Mainly in the following aspects:
Decline in 2.3.1's living standard after retirement.Because there are some links pensions and length of service, and at the same time to participate in the work, early retirement, pension will have less.Undergraduate age as 23 years old, and 55 years of age, female age generally reach 32 years.This means that according to the current retirement provisions, bachelor degree or above in the female has quite a lot of people will not be able to obtain a higher retirement benefits.
2.3.2 interferes with the female quality and competitiveness.Fixed retirement age, to seniority, to participate in work.This means that the women should be reduced or no longer participate in higher education.But the low quality will female cut? Weak competitiveness in society, the possibility of being eliminated will be significantly higher than the male.
2.3.3 affects the development of female occupation and political future.Due to retire 5 years earlier, women and men in an equivalent education, time of work without distinction of circumstances, but will in job selection, unit flow, in the reform of administrative staff, many cadres promoted the use of the difference between the treatment and some male.
2.3.4 lead to female human resources are wasted.Female five years ahead of retirement, objective and shorten the time women's employment, the premature female talent quit working stage, inhibit female talent value play, causing female human resources waste in large area.Particularly high intermediate title of intellectual women.They generally reflect, 55 years is experienced, without a tie in the world, be full of go, can devote themselves into the work of the golden age, however, is facing merciless retirement.But before, their education, work experience and experience with men is the same.
2.3.5 caused by one of the causes of female employment discrimination.Based on the physiological factors, completed the population reproduction task is mainly done by women.Pregnancy, fertility, lactation, inevitably to occupy a certain time, energy.As the employer, based on cost considerations, recruit male instead of female.
3 policy suggestions

When the retirement age for men and women has not implemented the new system, the author thinks that should take corresponding measures, in order to protect the rights and interests of women, as much as possible to achieve the equality between men and women.
3.1 reduced pension gap between men and women.At present, the retirement age controversy, many are concentrated in the retirement income.For this, we suggest, can introduce the policies and regulations of the opportunity, from the female point of speaking for women, constantly optimize the policy environment, the normal retirement age for retirement in women, a corresponding increase in pension; provisions on the same level, in order to make retirement to enjoy the same subsidies, the women get full pension age to around the age of 30 decline from the age of 35, in order to ensure the equality of men and women after retirement income.

The 3.2 retirement one divides into two.The new old-age insurance system in our country has begun to implement the "basic pension" (male and female average distribution) and "personal account pension" (and the working time and payment method of combining the association).We can strive to improve the "basic pension" ratio, because the more the average distribution of the pension, the more favorable for women.At the same time, gradually the individual account, truly realize the mode conversion pay-as-you-go system to partial accumulation.
The 3.3 step to extend the retirement age.With the development of society, to extend the retirement age has become a problem.However, raising the statutory retirement age involves many fields of people's life, social influence will be very big.So, when doing the work, shortcut cannot seek speed, step in the search for, and to be circumspect, make reform slowly, gradually, so it is possible to get the community recognition and acceptance.
3.4 the implementation of flexible retirement system.Due to the development of the industry in various regions, imbalance, female education of different ages, different working environment, the nature of work is different, resulting in women's work burden is not balance.Therefore, the present situation of our country and make our retirement system should not be a single mode.
At present, our country is in the transition period of important, and improve the deepening of reform and opening up and the market economy system, for the true equality for women in the creation of a hitherto unknown opportunities and challenges, at the same time, also the definition of the original policy and legal provisions, put forward to perfect and improve the requirements, I hope through the establishment of retirement females and males of the same age system, can make the basic state policy of equality between men and women can better carry out and implement in all aspects.
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