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On the measure of regional innovation - from the revelation of the U.S. Council on Competitiveness

Author: Anonymous From: www.yourpaper.net Posted: 2010-05-28 02:55:56 Read:
Paper Keywords: innovative national and regional innovation measure competitiveness
Abstract: under the guidance of the strategy of building an innovative country, many places are being developed distinctive regional innovation development strategies and policies. This article analyzes the U.S. Council on Competitiveness regional innovative research ideas, analysis methods and tools, access to information and policy recommendations put forward, thinking about how to deepen our regional innovation in the context of the globalization of the economy, science and technology research and make recommendations.
U.S. Council on Competitiveness (TheCouncilonCompeti.tiveness) is a national non-profit organization of corporate CEOs, university presidents and labor leaders as a member of the high-level decision-making in the United States has great influence. The committee released in 2004 and "innovation" .. report, the focus has demonstrated the United States rely on scientific and technological innovation to achieve sustained economic and social development achievements, experience and strategic planning for the future. The report published in 2005, with the United States Academy of Sciences and Academy of Engineering report "standing above the gathering storm" caused a strong reaction in all walks of life in the United States, "American Competitiveness Initiative" which led to President Bush in 2006, and the United States in 2007 by the Competition Act. The committee through the organization of the business community, labor organizations, academia and government leadership on economic development opportunities and challenges facing the assessment has an important impact on public opinion about U.S. competitiveness.
Theoretical and practical issues facing regional innovation system in China, the author visited the U.S. Council on Competitiveness, understanding regional innovation system evaluation and case studies. The committee president DeborahL. Wince-Smith, senior vice president responsible for the implementation of the strategy, the vice president responsible for planning and development, responsible for regional innovation research vice president to join the talks. Mainly formed following revelation:
, How to understand the historical background of the regional innovation system
The innovative connotation is to create and apply new knowledge. In today's rapid globalization and keener competition of comprehensive national strength Et, sustained economic growth, enhance the comprehensive national strength, the development of the well-being of citizens, and both rely on innovation. U.S. Council on Competitiveness, the data show that U.S. GDP by about 50% due to innovation. In the past two centuries, the United States has maintained a world leader in the development of innovative products and services, and become an important engine of world economic growth.
Innovation itself is changing. U.S. Council on Competitiveness lists the five new innovative features:
First, faster. The accelerating pace of technological progress and the spread of. Car spread to 1/4 of the U.S. region with 55 years to 35 years, telephone, radio for 22 years, spent 16 years in the personal computer, mobile phone l3 years, the Internet in just seven years.
Second, interdisciplinary. The most valuable innovations tend to appear in the multidisciplinary field. Such as bioinformatics or nanotechnology, a few decades ago these disciplines do not exist. Today, more and more economists believe that these disciplines will become the main driving force for the future of the U.S. economy.
Third, cooperation. As innovation becomes more complex, which requires the active cooperation and exchange among scientists and engineers, as well as between the creators and users.
Fourth, democracy. The innovations had just research expertise of the development department. Today, more and more workers and even consumers to participate in the process of innovation, stimulate creativity to a greater extent. Software companies or traditional food flavoring agent enterprises, to provide consumers with their own design and development tools.
Fifth, globalization. Innovation can occur in any one place. Increased levels of education, and economic development to improve the innovative capacity of developing countries, modern means of communication and transportation technologies to enable these countries to share with its customers on a global scale advanced technology. So the result is a good idea, no matter where it is generated, almost does not lose the opportunity to apply.
In this new context, despite the technical, financial and knowledge on a global scale with the integration of the ways to realize national prosperity is increasingly localized. As the cornerstone of the national innovation system, regional innovation system is particularly important in today's national competition pattern
American Competitiveness Committee considers that the regional innovation system lies in: a region, a city can create conducive to innovation the ecosystem (innovationecosystem) support innovative economic growth. This theory is both a continuation of the innovation cluster theory, is a new development. The U.S. Vice Minister of Commerce DavidASamp. son once said about the innovation area, the key is to find a competitive advantage in the region, the need to identify areas have assets, including physical assets, scientific and intellectual basis, market opportunities and to find the strategy of market opportunities. This is respected by the Council on Competitiveness in the regional innovation research point of view, but also many of its main line of research. Grasp this point, help us understand the experiences and practices of the United States in the area of ??innovation.
Second, why to assess the regional innovation system
A common understanding of all walks of life in the United States, the overall lead of the United States in the field of innovation dominant position is weakened, faced with a growing number of competitors, ranging from a large number of state-of-the-art developed countries, but also the development of great importance to scientific and technological innovation countries such as China and India. For the states, the competitive situation they face from the domestic and international inter-regional rivalry. For example, the automotive industry as a pillar of the economy of Michigan, in recent years not only by the impact from imported cars, and along with Et car factory inroads into the United States and set up a manufacturing base in North Carolina and other states, the state also faces from the doorstep competitive pressures. Therefore, the trend of trade protectionism in the state began to rise. At the same time, there are more people to appeal to the state's emphasis on regional innovation in order to attract highly qualified personnel, to support the development of innovative enterprises. Based on the pressure of competition, the leaders of many states in the United States is increasingly concerned about the problem of the regional innovation system.
In recent years, the U.S. Council on Competitiveness implementation of regional innovation plan "(RII), to help in many parts of the formulation of development strategies. The Committee considers that in order to provide the correct advice to government, business and labor leaders of the region, the first to scientifically and accurately describe local innovation. Therefore, the assessment and measure regional innovation system to become one of the main research direction of the committee of experts.
In 2001, the U.S. Council on Competitiveness and Harvard University Professor Michael Porter Cluster Theory of Economic Development to conduct a comparative study of the five regions of the United States, including Atlanta, Pittsburgh, San Diego, Wichita, and North Carolina Triangle area. These studies combine empirical analysis of the impact of innovation on the regional economy, to these areas put forward recommendations to improve innovation capability. The research brings together the innovation cluster: the basis of competitiveness report. The researchers accurately reflect the index system of regional innovation capability, effectively help these leaders recognize the region's position in the competitive landscape of the region, provide the basis for new initiatives.
In 2003-2005, the Commission once again to start the regional innovation evaluation studies, select the six regions of the United States compared, including the central region of New Mexico, northern Ohio, Wilmington, Delaware, northwest inland areas (Spokane area ), Western Michigan and St. Louis. The U.S. Small Business Administration also innovative regional studies commissioned by the Committee of Rochester, New York Region. As these studies focus on the combination of theory and empirical, compared with the general research policy guidance value.
Third, how to assess the regional innovation system
The combination of Quantitative Analysis and Empirical Study of the U.S. Council on Competitiveness of Regional Innovation. In view of the innovative research in the relevant regional technical difficulties, this article describes the relevant research experience and methods of the Committee.
(A) The study defined
Specific regional economic definition has been the problem of academic research, including research to determine the boundaries and data availability extent to study the basic premise able to achieve the target. The Committee of researchers using the U.S. Census Bureau (uSCensusBureau) definition of metropolitan (MetropolitanStatisti-cal, MSA). This choice makes research on regional innovation have comparability with other regional studies, the formation of conclusions and recommendations easier to understand and accept, thus becoming an integral part of the economic policy.
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