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International Comparison of regional innovation system and Its Enlightenment to China

Author: GuoQingRan From: www.yourpaper.net Posted: 2010-05-28 02:47:48 Read:
Keywords paper: regional innovation; regional innovation system; international comparison; regional competitiveness
Abstract: regional innovation system is an organic part of the national innovation system, is an important source of power of the national innovation system.At present, the regional innovation in China in both theoretical study and practice has just started, there are many contents are still in active exploration, the theory of system has not yet formed.From an international perspective, the regional innovation system in some countries are more successful.The knowledge driven technology introduction type, South Korea and India government push type is one example, the practice for the construction of regional innovation system in China is of great significance.
1 regional innovation system theory of
The regional innovation theory originated from the theory of technology innovation.Inpet in 1912 published "economic development theory," a book for the first time will be "innovation" into the scope of economics, and the definition of the product, technology, market, organization innovation.Based on the pioneering research on the innovation theory, the descendants of the continuous deepening and development, continuously expanding research field.Freeman in 1987 in the "technical and economic performance: from the experience of Japan" in one book put forward the concept of the national innovation system, research on national innovation system makes the study of technology innovation theory into a new stage.And the world of high-tech Industrial Development Zone and industrial clusters grow rapidly, to make people aware of the strong regional characteristic of innovation activities.In this context, the early nineteen ninties the emergence of regional innovation system (Regional Innovationsystem) theory.
Earlier research on the regional innovation system is Cooke professor Cook of the Cardiff University in England (1996), he was "regional innovation system: regional government under the background of globalization management role" in one article, the regional innovation system is the main regional organization system is constituted by the division of labor between geographically associated with the production, research institutions and institutions of higher institutions so, the system support and innovation.In addition, Asheim (1997), B.Carlsson (1999), Cassiolato (1999) also studied the regional innovation system from different aspects, and Frarz Toctling (1999) proposed five characteristics of regional innovation.In recent years, research of the regional innovation system abroad to specific cases, such as Doloreux (1999), Philip Cooke (2002) and Bjorn Isaksen (2002) T.AsheimArne and so on.
In the domestic, regional innovation system theory started relatively late, a lot of research in 2000 after the beginning of.The "2001 report of Chinese regional innovation capacity" that the regional innovation system is a network system of organization within the region characteristic, and Regional Resources Association, innovation.Its purpose is to promote, within the region of new technology or new knowledge flows, renewal and transformation.Peking University professor Wang Jici that the regional innovation system is a regional network of each node (enterprise, University, research institutions, government) in the synergistic effect of netting and innovation, and integration into the regional innovation environment and the composition of the system.Chen Xiushan of Renmin University of China and others thought, regional innovation system is a network system of organization innovation to promote a regional characteristic, and the associated resources, its purpose is to promote the new technology and producing area, new knowledge flows, renewal and transformation.Gu Xin of the Sichuan University argues that the regional innovation system is in one country in a certain region, the new combination of factors of regional economic development or the development of new elements into regional economic system, and create a new and more effective allocation of resources, to achieve new system functions, make the economy more efficient use of resources in the area, in order to improve regional innovation ability.Wu Guisheng of Tsinghua University believes that regional innovation system refers to technology innovation behavior within the region related subject, open network system structure and the corresponding system and mechanism.
In the domestic and foreign research on regional innovation system can be found, for the theory system of the regional innovation system has not established systematic, not only fuzzy concept, the object of study is focused on the developed market economy and area.Even so, are the key elements of the regional innovation system can be extracted, mainly include: enterprise is the main body, R & D (R& D); market intermediary service organization (Technology) appropriate participation involved and the government; the creation and transfer of new knowledge, new technologies and new products; around new knowledge, new skills and new product creation and transfer to the formation of innovation network (innovation network); the ultimate goal is to achieve regional economic and social development.
International Comparison of 2 of the regional innovation system
In the world, regional innovation has become a decisive factor of regional competitiveness, is an important driving force to promote regional economic development.Whether in the western developed countries or in developing countries, has the inestimable significance of regional innovation system.Due to differences in resource endowments, technology condition, market infrastructure, culture etc..Creating a regional innovation system of different countries.
2.1 British knowledge driven type
Britain is a developed market economy countries, robust and loyalty to the British conservative, long history and also make the UK has a strong cultural atmosphere.Regional innovation system in the UK is based on knowledge production and processing as the main driving force of knowledge innovation, enterprise and research university is the UK regional innovation support carrier.In order to promote the transformation of knowledge and science and technology achievements, the British government to encourage scientific research type university set up a science and Technology Park, eighteen eighties, 46 British university held nearly 20 science and Technology Park, 1987 to 37, in 2000 it reached 53.Some famous science and Technology Park, such as the Cambridge Industrial Park, the otter Watt University Science and Technology Park, Ashton Science Park, University of Warwick Science Park, greatly enhance the research and application of knowledge between the contact.
The production of knowledge and innovation has been the focus of attention in the British government in the regional innovation.In order to encourage knowledge innovation, the British government attaches great importance to the protection of intellectual property rights.Released 1993 "white paper on science and technology: realize our potential", marks the intellectual property strategy developed for absorption and diffusion, liquidity emphasizes knowledge, and to reduce the price level by strengthening the technology diffusion of knowledge.1995 has introduced "speed up" white paper, put forward "technology sharing benefit index" with the transfer of the four elements of 7 indicators, and to develop a series of programs to support the technology diffusion process.If the government free of charge transfer formed by public investment in intellectual property rights, government and Research Council out of the protection of intellectual property rights, encourage first-line "University and industry share R& D", and "R& through materialized; market distribution" D flow and patent knowledge to promote technology diffusion.1996 - 1997, the British government to spend more than 50000000 pounds of technology diffusion.In order to solve the knowledge innovation enterprise financing difficult problem, the British director of science and technology and industrial policy of the Department of trade and industry and even consider setting up a "knowledge bank", through the fund or government guarantee mode of operation and support enterprises to carry out knowledge production and innovation.
Cambridge Industrial Park is a typical representative of regional innovation system in britain.In 1969, in response to the British government called on University and Industry Association, University of Cambridge began preparing for the Cambridge industrial park.In 2000, about 1200 high technology company in Cambridge, employment for 35000 people, the annual trade amounted to 4000000000 pounds.The area of the company to research and development, the high technology company is large, computer software and hardware, scientific instruments and electronic industry, there are 13 aspects of increasing biotechnology, pharmaceutical chemistry, space technology company.Cambridge Industrial Park has concentrated a large number of large Multi-National Corporation research base and Research Center, such as Nokia, Hitachi, Oracle, Xerox Co, Standford, Microsoft.The success of Cambridge Industrial Park and University of Cambridge are inseparable.The University of Cambridge in computer, information, physical and biological aspects of the discipline advantage and scientific research strength through knowledge products and technology transfer are fully utilized.
Technology introduction 2.2 Japan and South Korea
Compared with western developed countries, Japan and South Korea in the early development of the economic base is weak, lack of knowledge and technology R & D strength, engage in independent innovation and lack of realistic conditions like britain.Moreover, the development of science and technology change rapidly, for the developing countries, play the learning effect, the introduction of instead of independent development is a wise choice of Japan and korea.Therefore, the regional innovation system in Japan and South Korea have prominent features of technology introduction.Of course, the introduction of technology at the same time, specific practices in Japan and South Korea are not exactly the same.Japan early imitation innovation, independent innovation to the nineteen eighties, and
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