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The international review of industrial cluster theory

Author: WangHaiPing Yang Qiang From: www.yourpaper.net Posted: 2010-05-26 12:53:30 Read:

has a significant effect on [Abstract] this paper reviews to Du can agricultural location theory since at the end of the twentieth Century the foreign research on the relationship between economic development and regional spatial has had a theory.Due to the various theories in different periods have certain similarity research methods and content, therefore, these theories can be divided into three stages.Are the industry consolidation period and social integration of classical location theory period.
[Key words] industrial cluster; theory; regional innovation
1 the classical location theory
In the framework of classical economic theory. The geographical distribution of location and industry scholars concern individual enterprise.This period is the beginning of the end of nineteenth Century to mid twentieth Century 2O's..The classical location theory from the angle of the cost analysis of the relationship between influencing factors of plant location and raw material, market location and transportation mode, the cost minimum and the profit maximization as a set of quantitative analysis method of plant location principle of development, laid the foundation for the quantitative analysis of industrial space in economic geography.
1.1 Thunen's agricultural location theory and
Du can (Thunen.J.H.von) is the founder of agricultural location theory, in his 1826 book, "you years isolated country with agriculture and national economic relations" first from the regional perspective to study the layout of agricultural production problems.He to farmers farm the pursuit of profit maximization as the goal, the rent and freight variable, and assume that the land rent to city center distance and cultivated land, transport costs and inversely proportional to the distance proportional to, through the establishment of mathematical model, according to the characteristics of different agricultural production mode of transport, the optimal solution of the layout of agricultural production.And on this basis, draw a diagram of different crop layout for a center around the city to form a concentric circle, namely "Du can ring".He reveals that even in the same natural condition, can also be due to production and consumption between location location distance, make agricultural production mode in the space appear differentiation.Showing a concentric circle structure.
1.2 Weber's industrial location theory and
German economists Aerfolaide. Weber (Weber.A) is a pioneer in research on industrial location theory, he constructed a cost in the 1909 "industrial location theory" (especially in transportation costs) industrial location selection as the core concept, a series of guidelines and principles, and for the first time the agglomeration theory system of.Webb on the effects of the enterprise location moves from the three aspects of transportation costs, labor costs and agglomeration benefits, puts forward freight directivity factor, labor fee to factor and agglomeration directivity factor.In these factors to influence Wei Boji agglomeration factor on the industrial layout.He believes that the agglomeration is an advantage or is the production of the market to a large extent into one location are generated, and several such agglomeration advantages attributed to the development of technology, equipment, labor organization development and overall economic good use etc..He further defines the meaning of agglomeration, pointed out: centralized agglomeration theory of industrial studies, this centralized exists in the industrial production complex. The unit production becomes more and more economic and.Webb also on the industrial agglomeration to do quantitative research, in accordance with the migration cost increases at less than agglomeration is the cost saving principle, the arithmetic cost curve as analyzing tools to determine the degree of industrial agglomeration. It is pointed out that the actual place of payment minimum freight will become the industrial agglomeration location.
2 industry combined with stage
In the classical theory of location. The microcosmic study of industrial location theory is minimum, the transport costs for enterprises pay the lowest cost and individual cost factors as influencing factors of industrial location choice.Until the nineteen fifties, a comprehensive analysis of various cost factors instead of single cost analysis.At the same time, content analysis from single enterprise location problems turn up cooperative relationship between multiple enterprises.Pay more attention to the context of input-output analysis and industrial enterprises between the elements. Emphasis on polarization, in space radiation, return and cumulative effect.This stage is from the nineteen fifties to the 80's, the main theory, growth pole theory, the theory of territorial production complex and industrial gradient transfer theory.
The 2.1 growth pole theory
Growth pole was introduced by French scholar Lu (Francoisperroux) was first proposed in 1955, after the United States of America scholar Freedman (John.frishman), the Swedish scholar Myrdal (gunnarmyrda1) and the American scholar Hirshman (A.O.hischman), to some extent, enriched and developed the theory more perfect.That economic growth is the unbalanced development in the geographical space of growth pole theory, it with different intensity range punctate distribution, a region when embedding a push industrial unit can then generate agglomeration economy. Growth center, so as to promote the development of regional economy.He will be the growth pole can be defined as: a group of industry leading sector around the organization energetic and have highly correlated, it not only increase rapidly. And through the multiplier effect to drive the other sectors of the economy growth.Growth pole once appeared on the surrounding area development will have two benefits: namely the polarization effect and diffusion effect.The polarization effect refers to the constant concentration of production factors surrounding to the center, the center developed more developed. The backward area more backward: diffusion effect refers to the growth pole information, technology, production factors and other forms of diffusion into the surrounding region, and drive the surrounding area development.Emphasis on regional imbalanced development theory of growth pole, it will lead to the development of the polarization between the rich and the poor areas, two yuan of economic geographical space, and even the formation of independent of the surrounding the "enclave" phenomenon.The "enclave" type "growth pole" is not a good regional economic coordinated development, so that after 70 years, begin criticism of the growth pole theory.
2.2 regional production complex theory
Regional production complex theory is by the former Soviet Union scholars on the basis of summarizing practice put forward.Chloe Sofsky is a representative of this theory, he thinks the territorial production complex is: "in an industrial point of complete area.According to the natural conditions of the area, transportation and economic geography, properly (planned) for each enterprise, in order to obtain certain economic effect. A kind of the enterprises economic this combination is called the production complex".The basic idea of this theory is to emphasize the combination of regional specialization of production and regional comprehensive development, comprehensive body of the core industry is mainly decided by the natural resources and social economic conditions, related enterprises and institutions with the item mainly rely on formula divided type planned to achieve.Regional production complex exerted great influence in the former Soviet Union period. The Soviet Union members of economic development also takes an important role to the breakup of the Soviet Union. But with the political situation and the main planned economy transforming to market economy system, to the late 8O era has not adopted the theory.
2.3 industrial gradient transfer theory
Industrial gradient transfer theory originated from the United States Harvard University economist Vernon (Venron) industry life cycle theory, the first.The theory is that: the industrial sector and a variety of industrial products are in different stages of the life cycle, they and biological. Must go through innovation, development, maturity and recession four stages in the development process.Regional economic scientists will study the introduction of the thought of the regional economic development and the formation of industrial gradient transfer theory.The main idea of the theory is the economic and technological development is not balanced in different areas, which has formed a kind of economic and technological gradient, spatial transfer of productivity is transferring to the low gradient area from the high gradient regions, caused by the innovation of new products, new technologies, new production management mode is mostly originated in the high gradient area. And with the change of economic development and life cycle stage gradually shifted to low gradient area.
Industrial gradient transfer has shifted from the core to the backward area features visible in the geographical space, and there is a return trip effect transfer process makes this not only makes it difficult to solve the problem of coordinated regional development, the low gradient area falls into the "vicious spiral of Matthew effect" in the region, resulting in the widening gap between rich and poor.So this theory with the theory of growth pole is also subject to different degrees of criticism.
3 social integration period
This period began in the nineteen eighties.The study of industrial agglomeration is not only the research focus of economics, management, but also aroused great concern of sociology and geography.Scholars from different research perspective the formation of a large number of industrial agglomeration theory, since these theories concerned is no longer a location and production of single enterprise, nor the industry relevance and interaction problems. But look at those affecting the entire region environment, the culture system, government, integrity and innovation of social resources therefore, this period is called the social integration stage.
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