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Multinational companies for technology transfer to industrial development in Beijing

Author: WuXiangYang ZhangYun BiJuan From: www.yourpaper.net Posted: 2010-01-10 02:57:51 Read:
Abstract: The technology transfer of multinational companies is an important influence on the development of the automotive, electronic information, bio-pharmaceutical, and other industries in Beijing. Promote the expansion of the scale of the industry, improve the competitiveness of the industry in the country, improve the technical level of industry average. However, also being the industry locked in the low end of the value chain, the threat to industrial security to some extent, technology spillovers constrained.
Keywords: Multinational technology transfer industry development

The multinational technology transfer multinational corporations based on its globalization strategy, and the behavior of its own interests, but objectively impact on the host country's industrial development and industrial restructuring, and then in turn affect multinationals technology transfer strategies. Beijing since the reform and opening up, the advantage because of its unique location in the capital and the political and human resources advantages to attract a large number of multinational companies come to Beijing to invest in give Beijing some industries, such as automotive, electronic information, bio-pharmaceutical, and other important impact.

The new features of multinationals Beijing technology transfer

Multinationals Beijing Technology Transfer appeared two trends, on the one hand, technology transfer intensified; the other hand, technical control strengthened.

(A) the transfer of technology intensified
1, to accelerate the pace of technology transfer.
After China's accession to the WTO, with constantly improve our market system, the strengthening of intellectual property protection, technology transfer risk is reduced, also will accelerate the pace multinationals technology transfer. Technology transfer of multinational companies has become a major force in China's technology import and channels. Multinational companies in R & D institutions in Beijing technology trade also increasing technical contract turnover was significant growth. Multinational companies in Beijing R & D institutions in 2001-2006, a total turnover of 625 technology contracts, from 42 in 2001, increased to 146 in 2006, an increase of more than 2 times; turnover of 10.196 billion yuan from 377 million yuan in 2001 increased 4.311 billion yuan in 2006, an increase of more than 10 times the average annual growth rate of 62.80%.

2, the transfer of technical level increased.
Foreign investment in Beijing early, due to China's market - in particular, the lack of supply of consumer goods market, multinational companies simply transfer Ersan Liu technology, even only transfer to industry, technology transfer will be able to achieve considerable market share, a substantial profit. Beijing to attract high-tech foreign policy changes, as well as the tremendous changes in market demand, market competition intensifies, the multinational companies to enter the high-tech industry, relying solely on the industrial transfer or transfer only Ersan Liu technology has been unable to meet the needs of the market. Multinational companies not only to conduct the transfer of technology, must also be the transfer of advanced technology, otherwise, you can not gain a foothold in China's market. According to statistics, the world's large foreign investment in Beijing, using the most advanced technology of its parent company, the proportion of only 14% of the mid-1990s, and in 2001 reached 43%, has been close to 70% in 2006. For example, the R & D activities of foreign-funded R & D institutions in Beijing mainly in high-tech fields. The IT sector accounts for 81% (57% for electronic information, software development, 24%), accounting for 9% of the field of bio-medicine, accounting for 5% of the field of mechatronics, only 5% in other areas.

3, the R & D activities are becoming increasingly active, a substantial increase in R & D inputs and outputs.
With the the localization trend of development, and of the improvement of the status of the division of labor in the global manufacturing industry since the 1990s is not, in order to rapidly adapt to local requirements, and the fierce market competition, multinational companies set off a craze in the R & D investment in China . Foreign investors to set up R & D institutions in Beijing, showing a significant growth trend. According to the Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission, the Municipal Bureau of Commerce and other departments to incomplete statistics, from 2000 to 2006, foreign-funded R & D institutions about incremental rate of 35% per annum, the total number of more than 350 currently. Among them, the world's top 500 enterprises to set up R & D institutions 46.
According to the Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission of the investigation, the funds of the 2005 foreign-funded R & D institutions, patents results significantly higher than the average of the Beijing area. Multinational companies in Beijing R & D activity funds to 46,2 billion, with a per capita R & D expenditures of $ 35.8 million. R & D staff of nearly 1.3 million people, about 50% of highly educated personnel MA, PhD, accounted for 93% of the scientists and engineers of red. Patent 2,073, of which 1,464 pieces of invention patents, accounting for about 20% of the total invention patent applications in the Beijing area, the average per 100 R & D staff to apply 11 (4) invention patents.

(B) technical controls to strengthen
Multinational companies are not charitable institutions, to invest in China's ultimate goal is profit, and capture the market. The technological advantage is a key to its monopoly and competitive advantages, Therefore, in all aspects of the joint ventures, production, operations, research and development, is bound to do everything possible to protect its technological advantage to minimize technology spillover. If the multinational companies in the host country, the investment research process, you can not protect their advantage, according to Dunning's theory, multinational companies prefer to select export. Therefore, the multinational companies in the technology transfer process will inevitably continue to strengthen technical control, to strictly prevent technology leakage.
Equity control.
In order to control the core technology, multinationals tend absolute control to run, are generally directly set up a wholly-owned subsidiary in the host country or branches, operating independently;, strict control of new technology even if taken the way of joint venture or cooperation proliferation. Multinational companies to invest in Beijing: The more high-tech industries, foreign investment, the more the enterprise holding; more technologically advanced enterprises, multinational companies more inclined to take sole proprietors. In addition, joint venture, part of the joint venture's foreign through replenishment Holdings and other means, to cancel the Chinese side of the original R & D institutions, or China's relevant agencies in the subsidiary, China Technology Development subject to foreign. According to statistics, as of now, the established forms of cooperation in the Beijing foreign R & D institutions accounted for only 5%, the establishment of joint ventures accounted for 28%, and set up wholly-owned accounted for 67%. Motorola in China, more than 100 research centers are set up wholly-owned multinational companies such as IBM, Intel, Lucent in China has also set up a wholly-owned R & D institutions.

2, patent and intellectual property protection.
Outstanding performance in two aspects of the control of multinational companies to patent, the patent number and patent structure. In recent years, the patent application processing the quantity increased year by year, and the number of licenses to occupy a considerable share of the admissibility and authorized domestic patent from multinational companies. In Beijing, the United States, Japan, Germany, Korea Si Guo Jing R & D investment up, no matter patent application amount, or patent authorized volume firmly occupy the previous four, the four countries in the Beijing company patent applications accounting for nearly 90% of the total number of foreign applications, technical secrets is also transnational The company main form of intellectual property protection. 2001-2006 multinationals secret contracts traded technology R & D institutions in Beijing 388; turnover of 8.777 billion yuan, accounting for 86.08% of the total. 165 computer software; turnover of 1.263 billion yuan, accounting for 12.39%. The seven patented technology; turnover of 017 million yuan, accounting for 0.17%.

Technology transfer internalization.
Foreign direct investment of multinational companies are generally accompanied by the transfer of technology, formulations, know-how, advanced technologies, and other intellectual property and a series of specific assets, and these specific assets is the core competitiveness of multinational. Multinational companies in foreign investment, in order to ensure that these particular assets transfer its core competitiveness is not compromised, the transfer process as well as the use of a specific asset strict control, so that specific asset transactions, transfer and use of internalization, strengthen the advantages control over the to prevent core technology spillover. The flow of technology from multinational R & D centers in Beijing, nearly almost new technology flows to the headquarters of foreign companies. 2001 to 006 multinational companies in R & D institutions in Beijing output contract turnover, the flow of domestic technology contracts turnover of 1.191 billion yuan, accounting for 11.68% of the total; flow of foreign technology contracts turnover of 9.005 billion yuan, accounting for 88.32 percent of the total. And the flow of domestic technology, related party transactions accounted for 54.24%, non-related transactions accounted for 45.76 percent.
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