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To multinationals knowledge internal transfer theory development

Author: ZhangPengFei¡¡YuZuo From: www.yourpaper.net Posted: 2009-10-01 10:43:07 Read:
Abstract: In this paper, comb, a review of the theoretical literature relevant the multinationals knowledge internal transfer the multinationals knowledge the course of development of the internal transfer of theoretical research.
Keywords: multinational corporations; Knowledge Transfer Inside

Background

In economic globalization, multinational corporations play an increasingly important role, becoming an important organizer of the international economic activities. Knowledge-based enterprises
Industry theory holds that enterprise social community knowledge, constitute the basis for enterprises to obtain sustainable competitive, but also the fundamental source of competitive advantage. With the complexity of the world economy, the stability and dynamic growing multinational companies have also come to realize that in its internal ability to achieve effective knowledge transfer and integration, will determine its ability to succeed in the fierce global market. The rapid development of modern information technology, knowledge transfer within multinational companies to create the conditions. Since the 1970s, has become a central topic of the domestic and foreign scholars are concerned about and explore. Research for multinationals Knowledge Transfer Inside
Davenport and Prusak (1998), knowledge transfer is received by the knowledge convey two parts plus total made. Knowledge transfer first from the owners of the knowledge passed to potential recipients, and then be absorbed by the recipient. The complete process of knowledge transfer must also achieve the imparting of knowledge absorption. Dixon (2000) that the transfer of knowledge within the organization is the knowledge of the role will be a part of the organization to another part of the organization, and the organization members through a variety of tools and procedures for the transfer and sharing of knowledge.
Seen, knowledge transfer actually refers to the interaction between knowledge transfer knowledge receiver and take advantage of the tools necessary means through certain procedures so that the recipient can access specific content knowledge, and knowledge absorption, integration and utilization. And the multinationals knowledge internal transfer refers to the process of multinational companies have the knowledge flow between each other multinational companies between the parent company and its subsidiaries, as well as national subsidiaries.

Second, the theoretical study of the course of development

An initial stage of theoretical research
1970s to the early 1980s for the initial stage of the multinational theoretical research. The focus of the theoretical study of this period is to explain the internal logic relationship between TNCs and knowledge transfer, and that is why there are knowledge transfer in multinational internal and multinational companies on how to promote the transfer of knowledge. The internalization theory originated in the 1970s, the rise of the theory, the theory is mainly from the point of view of the transaction costs to explain the reason for the existence of the multinational companies. Buckley and Cason (1976) pointed out that knowledge can be transferred freely under conditions of zero marginal cost, making it difficult to effectively protect the interests of the knowledge holders in market transactions, leading to the failure of market transactions, that knowledge trading paradox " . This requires to replace the market mechanism through administrative mechanisms, and knowledge of internal transactions to circumvent market imperfections, making the knowledge owners should return. When this process is carried out worldwide, multinational arises. Bounded rationality and opportunism transaction cost perspective to be examined by the knowledge and technology, and other factors as intermediate products, knowledge transfer within the enterprise better than market transactions conclusions can be drawn particular context.
Kogut and Zander (1993) pointed out that on the basis of multinational corporations exist not only because of the imperfections of the market, and transnational business process, multinational companies can produce a way of promoting the cross-border flow of knowledge ability. And this ability is not only a prerequisite for multinational operations, and will be enhanced in transnational business activities, is the key to multinational companies gain a competitive advantage. Therefore, the transfer of knowledge in multinational companies internal efficiency superior to the external market mechanisms, which also is an important reason for multinational companies exist. Theoretical research stage of development
Discussion on knowledge transfer within the 1980s to the 1990s, mainly from the point of view of the cognitive and organizational behavior to examine ways and means of knowledge transfer. Such studies to become a mainstream research multinationals knowledge internal transfer. Is basically not to consider the organizational context and the external environment affect its limitations, and knowledge transfer subject generally limited to an organization or a single enterprise, the more difficult to extend, called classic knowledge transfer research organizations.
The "SECI knowledge conversion spiral model proposed by Nonaka (1994) had a great influence on subsequent research, and multinationals knowledge internal transfer research focus to advance to the knowledge transfer process. The model is analyzed from the angle of tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge into each other four sub-stages of enterprise knowledge transfer, namely (1) "internal common (Socialization)"; (2) "external explicit (Externalization); ( 3) Summary integration (combination); (4) Internal sublimation internalization. The combination of the above four stages, Knowledge Transfer Inside Enterprise dynamic cycle, "SECI Knowledge Spiral. The model proposed four modes of knowledge conversion (recessive - recessive, recessive - dominant, dominant - dominant and dominant - recessive) accurately describe the specific processes and methods corresponding to each stage of knowledge transfer .
3 the establishment phase of the theoretical model
Theoretical study last decade multinationals internal transfer of knowledge from the perspective of organizational system considering the properties and organization of knowledge situational factors, the research multinationals knowledge internal transfer problem. Such studies mostly concentrated in explore what factors the thrust or resistance of the enterprise knowledge transfer, and trying to build a comprehensive knowledge transfer in various stages of the overall model. Simon (1999) pointed out that in the study of knowledge transfer in international strategic alliance between the knowledge of the ambiguity of the important factors that affect transfer knowledge effectively. Szulanski (2003) and other scholars start from the internal knowledge viscous identified four categories of factors that affect the transfer of knowledge: knowledge characteristics, knowledge source, knowledge receiver and transfer environment, and a breakdown of internal sticky knowledge transfer from the provider to the recipient four stages, which proposed a four-stage model of knowledge transfer. Due to this type of study covered within the organization and between organizations, can be applied to multi-enterprise system and multi-national corporations, can be predicted that it will become the mainstream multinationals knowledge internal transfer studies.
At this stage of the research method to gradually transition from qualitative analysis to quantitative analysis and empirical analysis.
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