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On the thinking on the application of human resource accounting

Author: WangLiFang From: www.yourpaper.net Posted: 2009-03-31 14:02:19 Read:
[Abstract] In today's increasingly competitive market economy, the units measured in human capital is extremely important. Human resource accounting as a branch of Accounting, from the point of view of accounting functions, its application has certain Chinese characteristics is of great practical significance, and the survival and development of the various units.
[Key words] Human Resource Accounting Recognition and Measurement applications

Whether the human resources as an asset, is the key to human resource accounting can be set up. Human resources management accounting is the use of monetary and other information, the accounting of human resources management activities.
Human resource accounting recognition
Accounting recognized for the asset in three elements: (1) it must be an economic resource; (2) owned enterprises; (3) can be measured using the currency. Human resources and material resources are common, that is, the properties of the assets. Therefore, in accordance with the above theory, human resources meet these three conditions, can be recognized as an accounting of assets.
Human resource accounting accounting method
Human resource accounting methods mainly in three ways: (1) the cost of human resources law; (2) investment in human resources; (3) the value of human resources. The cost of human resources law and investment law is the acquisition, development, reset a method for the measurement and reporting of the costs incurred by the organization's resources. Human resources value method is measured as the value of organizational resources, its value report. The same time, human resources accounting must take into account the value-added of the human resources and reflect the extension of long-term benefit.
Cost of human resources law recognized
(1) historical cost basis. This method is based on the actual expenditure of the acquisition, development and placement of human resources, and a capitalization method of valuation, the historical cost method is simple, objective and verifiable, the cost method of valuation methods. For example, a new employee, through training and years of work experience gradual accumulation will become a very good staff. In addition, the results of the investment to obtain the right to use, rather than ownership in human resources. This is different from the traditional accounting can be obtained ownership of material investment.
(2) The replacement cost method. This method is in the current price level, the measurement of the cost of reset being used need a valuation methods. It consists of two parts: one is to leave by employees caused turnover costs; another is achieved, the development of alternative consumption costs. The method reflected more on the relevance of the decision-making, but because of the subjectivity of the decision-makers on the criteria for determining what is the same as human resources, replacement cost in the end there are issues such as how much is too large, may not be able accurately reflect the true value of human resources.
(3) opportunity cost method. This method is based on the method of valuation of the economic loss suffered by the enterprise employees leave. This method is close to the actual economic value of human resources, but far away from the traditional accounting model, resulting in heavy workload. Suitable for high-quality employees, strong liquidity and the opportunity cost of easy access to the enterprise.
Investment in human resources law accounting
(1) Human Resources Investment Law account settings. Investment in human resources in the existing basis of financial accounting and human resources cost accounting account set up on the basis of the creation of an account: the accounting of deferred costs for human resources for employees to pay the cost of training and education costs, the balance on the debit side, that have not yet amortized cost.
(2) Human resources accounting treatment of the investment law. (1) countries and individuals to invest part of the increase, debit: "human assets", credited to: "human capital". Partial reduction of the country, person, debit: "human capital"; credit: "human assets". (2) human resources training accounting treatment: short-term training and the cost is not high, debit: "human assets profit or loss"; credit: bank deposits or cash. Higher training costs, debit: "prepaid costs for human resources, credit: bank deposits or cash. accounting treatment: the continuing education of the human costs paid by enterprises, Debit: Prepaid human resource costs, credit: bank deposits or cash expenses paid, debit : "human assets"; credit: "human capital." and then with the human resources cost accounting amortization
Human resources value method of accounting
(1) future wages Act. The method is expected total wages of the workers in the hiring period, discounted at a certain discount rate, as the value of human resources. This method is based on wages as the basis, reflect only the exchange value of the human resources, not all value. From the concept of the value of human resource accounting point of view, its output value accounted for the economic value of human resources. Be seen, the value of human resources include not only the exchange value, and should also include the residual value.
(2) discounted future earnings method. This is a method of measuring the value of human resources groups. The method that can provide future income is the value of human resources, so each of discounted future earnings, and investment accounted for the proportion of the total investment, the investment in human resources in the future income income as the surplus value created by the human resources, but it does not reflect the wage component, the exchange value of the human resources, and therefore underestimate the value of human resources.
(3) the overall compensation income capitalization method. Which is included future wages capitalization method and the discounted future earnings method. Future wages discounting method focuses on the exchange value of the human resources, the discounted future earnings method focuses on the residual value, the sum of the two is the total value of human resources. This measurement method has unique advantages. Future wages of discounted exchange value of human resources, can provide predictive information to facilitate the comparison and timely adjust the cost of human resources, cost of human resources management, discounted future earnings The residual value method, allows managers to understand the business of human resources possible to create value in a certain period in the future, is conducive to enterprise return on investment analysis, take a more favorable measures for management of human resources. The sum of the total value as a human resources, represents the value in use of human resources, enterprise investment data.
Third, the development of human resource accounting prospects
Currently, many economic organizations of human capital as the first capital development, the development of human capital strategic priority in the financial capital development. With the constant improvement of China's market economy system, the structure of China's tertiary industry has undergone tremendous changes, wisdom, services, information the height-intensive service industries. At the same time, China's labor market is constantly improve and develop gradually increase the flow of talent, the talent battle has begun, human resources is bound to become even more important, which the recognition, measurement and other aspects of human resource accounting more profound challenges. The future value of human resources, to a large extent, it is through this potential value to reflect. Talent an increasingly important role in economic development is an indisputable fact, we can see that the correct measurement, identification and documentation of human resources human resource accounting will be an unprecedented development.
References:
[1] Yi Ting Source: how to create a human resources value accounting. Accounting Research, January 2001
[2] Yan Zhijuan: the impact of the knowledge economy on human resource accounting. Economist, February 2002
[3] ZHANG Wen-xian: Human Resource Accounting System. Shanghai Lixin Press, 2004
[4] editor-in-chief of China Accounting Society: Human Resource Accounting topics China Financial and Economic Publishing House, 2004
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