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Tong Bao Currency Outline of the Research - "Chinese Tong Bao Currency Manuscripts Introduction

Author: Wang Jian From: www.yourpaper.net Posted: 2007-11-21 04:25:02 Read:
[Summary] Tongbao currency is the longest line, the most complex and comprehensive system of a copper coin of the history of China's currency system, occupies an important position in the history of China's economic and dark giant impact on Chinese history and culture . Tong Bao Currency traditional focus in numismatics perspective, the use of economic historians to examine the leaves started in the beginning of this century, it experienced twice the wave of the Republic and contemporary. On the occasion of the Chinese Quan School Centennial integrated academic century for-thousand on the occasion, the systematic collation the academic conditions Tong Bao Currency has matured, the article describes the author discusses the reign Currency founded the academic vision of development and decay history.

[English Abstract] Tong Bao currency is the most complex and perfect coppersystem with the longest period of utility in Chinese monetaryhistory.It has an important position in Chinese economichistory and has a profound influence on Chinese civilization.The traditional study of Tong Bao currency laid particularstress. on Coinics.The study that uses the method of economicsbegan in the early days of this century and has undergone twohigh tides - the Republic of China and the present age. Onoccasion of epitomizing Chinese Coinics in the past hundredyears and the world entering the new century , the academicconditions for making a systematic study of Tong Bao currencysystem are ripening.This paper presents a brief and account of the authors conception of the history of the establishment, development and declination of Tong Bao Currency System.

[Key words] Monetary History / Tongbao monetary system / currency culture

currency history / Tong Bao currency system / monetary culture

[Text]


China is the first one of the ancient civilizations of the world, at least more than 4000 years of history in the use of currency. After the ancient pre-Qin physical currency, Cowrie and bronze coinage the Evolution of the Qin Dynasty unified currency as a symbol, laid a square hole round of coins shape. Since the Qin and ends Sui, and half of the two monetary system and the the five baht Currency delivery phase metabolic, leading the trend. Tang dynasty, early years, in the social, political, economic and cultural multiple historical factors that gave birth to, and finally formed only solution Thousand Years of Tong Bao Currency.

Tong Bao Currency line with the longest, the most complex and comprehensive system of a coin system in the history of the Chinese currency, occupies an important position in the history of the Chinese economy. In the long run history form set strict the operation flexible casting issue management system and with distinctive historical characteristics control policies, could fill volumes currency ideology and culture of coins, produced a far-reaching influence on Chinese history and culture in the Middle Ages since. These are other monetary system in the history of China can not be compared Tong Bao Currency, which highlights the unique historical status and cultural values.

The operation of the time span, the measure of an ancient monetary system status indications. Ancient Chinese currency can be traced back to the pre-Qin and even three generations, but as a relatively mature and complete connotation of the monetary system, beginning from the half of the two monetary system. Half of the two-currency system the upper limit is about the Qin Guoxiao male age (year 359 BC), Shang Yang Qin dynasty achieve great unification was turned into a national monetary system, then line into the Han to Han Wudi Yuanshou years (118 years), before and after a span of 240 years. Mid-Han Wudi of the currency reform, launched five baht currency system Yuanshou five calendar Eastern Han, Wei, Sui Dynasty abolished Takenori four years (621 years), before and after a span of 738 years. To examine the scope of the Monetary History from the Ancient World, half of the two, the time span of five baht currency system record has been quite impressive, but still inevitably inferior compared to following the heel sky Tongbao Currency. The Tongbao Currency born Gaozu Takenori four Suozhu Kaiyuan reign of the prevailing throughout the Tang Dynasty is not bad. The Song Dynasty beginning since the the Dynasty cast Song and Yuan reign, the dynasty monarchs are cast line Tongbao money. The Yuan Dynasty was prohibited on the money line notes, but most of the time still casting line Tongbao. Ming Dynasty money silver parallel, since the first Ming Dazhong reign began casting line, in addition to individual age, all line Tongbao system money. Qing Dynasty reign from the founding until the Xuantong casting line is always relative to the Qing Dynasty. Until the Republican era, Yunnan Province has also cast Republic Tongbao to become Tong Bao Currency reverberation. In summary, Tongbao Currency was founded in AD 621, until in 1911, running up to 1300, which is the history of Sino-foreign currency prevailing longest a copper coinage system of.

Being in a position in the currency structure of the different periods, is an important basis for assessing a historical monetary system. As we all know, China's feudal society, the fundamental characteristic of the monetary system is the implementation of standard copper coins, The Tongbao currency in late feudal society that acts as a such a standard system, thus becoming the main system in the Middle currency structure. In the Tang Dynasty, is generally believed that the so-called 'Qianbo parallel standard', in fact the late Tang Dynasty Silk in the status of the decline in the monetary system, parallel standard to maintain the time, however in the Tang and mid. Song Dynasty Yuan Ming early implementation of the banknote circulation system, of banknotes as on copper-based supplement. Yuan and early Ming Dynasty was prohibited on the money line banknote banknote on behalf of the copper and silver, but it was too limited and did not really shake Tongbao currency copper based status. Significant change in the late Ming Dynasty monetary structure, silver currency status enhanced the formation of large numbers with silver fractional money money parallel standard. Dynasty Qing Dynasty, money-based pattern by the impact of Western silver standard currency, money than the drop in price up impermanence; of Tongbao Currency behalf copper-based facing the standard conversion unprecedented challenge, Tongbao Currency With the decline of the plight of conventional forces did not immediately quit the stage of history . The late Qing Tong Bao Currency legally abolished, some rural areas Tongbao system money still in force up to the Northern Expedition during. Shows that in the history of the Chinese currency, Tong Bao Currency served how important the role is a thorough investigation must be the base currency. Tong Bao Currency and other monetary system, the complex interaction between the reign standard for a long time to occupy internal causes and effects of the monetary standard, no doubt to be questioning the academic subjects Tong Bao Currency Research.

Tong Bao Currency gradually formed a set of functions in the operation of its history, a complete foundry management system. In the Tang Dynasty, the central the mint coins institutions have less government monitoring. Monitor the censor's responsibilities censorate, including Xunan counties to mint coins. Temporary court to appoint mint coins to make part of the Ministry of Officials. Creators the set of Yantie make Tang after degrees send away, provincial judge also palm the affairs of the world to mint coins. The Tang Dynasty place money Supervisor mainly located in the 'world states were produced copper by' implement centralized management of decentralized management. Supervisor state money to begin with the state capital of the Supreme Executive to serve as the main monitor, there have been a the prefectural governor captaincy and observation to make, Jiedushi sentenced to imprisonment, etc.. JI almost the Song dynasty, the Secretary that Yantie, the degree of support and Prime Minister of the Ministry of Finance, three under the jurisdiction of competent ironclad the world pit metalworking money affairs. Per harvest between bureaucracy reformation, the above transaction in danger of normalization under the scribe and Industry Ministry and less government monitoring command. Production of copper in the country from various quarters, with the lifting pit to metalworking money Division, under the jurisdiction of the pit rule of field and money into prison, in above the brightest specifically set Division, the Song court southeast emphasis mint coins Zhu Lu has UTs Secretary for metalworking money, generally, Permanent Raozhou regional build institutions - reminding JAC Jing Zhejiang and Fujian Canton Road pit, on behalf of the court to manage the southeast the Zhu Lu pit to metalworking money affairs. Money monitoring coinage production department in the Song Dynasty, to be located under the road the state government, has a prison officer, prison doors, seized exploration, materials, treasurers. Song Dynasty copper and iron money all supervisors court regulation and changes in currency affairs, home waste quite frequently, reflecting the flexibility and adaptability of system is more prominent in the Song Dynasty to mint coins. Documents and archives of the Ming and Qing dynasties handed down rich age support, its cast line institutions, agencies are given contains the history to follow, was Syria and its details. Ming set Schroder Bureau and Baoquan Bureau, the provinces are located Baoquan Bureau. The Schroder Bureau features such as prefect YuanWaiLang act by the Industry the households Ministry officials. According to historical documents and money back text clues can be broadly test set for the change in status of the the Ming Dynasty provinces Bureau set waste money. Qing Dynasty along the order of the old system in the Ming Dynasty, by jurisdiction Schroder Bureau and Industry, the Ministry jurisdiction BAOQUAN bureau to mint coins, are set to mint coins from the Mainland to the frontier provinces Bureau. Money office duty transport from copper mining to casting management are increasingly tight, the history file is well documented details. In the above system, the Tang and Song dynasties over the money monitoring wastewater go so far completed far, the literature of historical information access efforts during which changes the truth be Dynasty recovery, is also a valuable subject Tong Bao Currency Research a.
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