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The eastern coastal areas "three rural issues" new perspective

Author: ZhangYunHua From: www.yourpaper.net Posted: 2007-11-19 14:48:02 Read:
Abstract: with the rapid economic development of the eastern coastal areas, coastal areas in the western region has been relatively, the rural economy is "developed", and relatively more "backward" embarrassing situation and urban.This new situation makes the current reform of rural taxes and fees and many scholars proposed the abolition of the household registration system and other measures in the area of "three rural issues" has little effect.Therefore, the specific situation for the agriculture, rural areas and farmers, the eastern coastal areas are analyzed and based on this, puts forward some suggestions and thinking.

Keywords:   eastern coastal area; "three rural issues"
New Situation

With the pace of China's industrialization, city, accelerate the market in urban and rural areas, the income gap, "three rural issues" has aroused widespread concern.The published a large number of views and suggestions of academic experts, scholars, but most of the recommendations are proposed for the current overall situation all over the country, these suggestions and solutions to the Midwest rural eastern coastal areas of relatively more "developed" and special status and relative town is "backward" and not very applicable.Therefore the author of this article for the eastern coastal areas of "three agriculture" the specific situation analysis and puts forward some suggestions and thinking.

A. eastern coastal areas of the "three rural" new situation of
Since the reform and opening up, economic development in eastern coastal areas, gained the success that attract worldwide attention, the indicators of per capita GDP, Engel coefficient are far more than the central and Western regions.Industrialized, city market, and other eastern regions, the overall economic development at the same time, also of profound changes in the vast rural areas, so that farmers in the eastern region's standard of living has improved significantly.The eastern coastal areas has been relatively more "developed" and the special status and relative town is also very "backward".
1. coastal areas in the central and western regions of the relatively new
Reform and opening up to promote rapid economic development in the eastern coastal areas at the same time, also the profound change with vast rural area, farmers in coastal areas of the industrial structure, employment structure, concept of life have undergone tremendous changes.The Midwest, the coastal area has been basically realized well-off farmers.No matter from the Engel coefficient of per capita residential area, or from the home phone or any other household appliance ownership rate is far higher than the central and Western regions.Therefore the coastal rural areas is the emergence of a new phenomenon in relation to the Midwest:
(1). The rural industry structure in the coastal area of the new situation of
A lot of land expropriation for construction or industrial land, and even a lot of abandoned farmland, land is no longer the coastal area farmer "Daily" "the survival".Planting is no longer single grain crops, replace sb. Is a large number of horticultural crops.With the development of economy, has the problem of food and clothing most of the eastern coastal areas of rural settlement, the development of township enterprises, private, private economy, farmer already did not want to be bound in the fields, taking Zhejiang as an example, the majority of rural Zhejiang have half of farmers leave the land, the new situation of half the land away from food production.In addition to a number of large grain, the average family will originally can two five cooked farmed only one year for one season rice, ensure oneself do not wish to kind of provide for oneself, high-income families or even a quarter are not.When the land is a large area of the overgrown with weeds, relatively central and western rural areas, farmers most coastal areas morning basket out not to pick vegetables, instead of turning farmers market.As for family poultry, livestock have been very rare.
(2). The employment structure in the coastal area of the tremendous changes, greatly increase the number of engaged in non-agricultural industries and
The eastern coastal area, firm and persistent implementation of the reform and opening up and development of the individual, private economy policy of profound changes in the employment structure of farmers in the region.Data shows, there have been more than half of the farmers in Zhejiang, employment in non-agricultural industries.At the same time, the coastal area farmer is relatively less work.At present, the influx of Eastern each big city lots of peasant workers, mostly from the Midwest, local farmers less and less.On the one hand because of certain jobs for local rural existence, to the local farmers go out to work "cost" more than "income"; on the other hand, the vast majority of coastal area farmer's basic life is not a problem, the farmers do not want to bear to go out to work hard.From this point of view, the current many scholars of the abolition of the household registration system measures to increase the income of farmers in coastal areas is not very clear.
(3). The internal income gap of farmers in littoral large
In Zhejiang, farmers for example, according to 2000 data, Zhejiang per capita income of farmers 4254 yuan, per capita net income of 20% the lowest income households only 2336.39 yuan; the highest income of farmers per capita net income of 20% to 10749.82 yuan.Zhejiang farmers can be divided into four levels: the first level is the income poverty type that is below the local minimum living line population, annual net income of less than 500 yuan, but this part of the total number of less than 1%; the second level is the food and clothing, have ample food and clothing type, year net income of average per capita is about between 500 - 5000 yuan, there is money or grain, accounting for about 70% of the total number; third level is the well-off and rich, this kind of family's basic living facilities have been completed, the annual per capita net income more than 5000 yuan, accounting for about 25% of the total number; the rich class accounted for about 4% of the total population, this part of the farmers are to do business or shares in the enterprise.From the above data can be seen, the rural economic development in coastal areas at the same time, the gap between rich and poor phenomenon is very serious, the further economic development, social stability is very bad.
(4). The coastal areas of farmer's idea, way of life has greatly changed the
To improve the material life level at the same time, will affect people's concept, way of thinking.The farmers in coastal areas witnessed profound changes brought about the reform and opening up, the market economy, fully aware of the importance of the knowledge economy, knowledge is the productivity of the understanding of the connotation of profound, therefore attaches great importance to their children's education.In recent years, expenditure of farmer education funds in the region continue to rise, even if the income belongs to the minimum level of the farmers for their children's education did not dare laches.In terms of lifestyle, new to end three years of "the coastal areas most rural already, three years old, sewing for another three years," life "," cooking "days no longer exist, most of the household the liquefier, electric rice cooker.The continuous rising of income, farmers began to pursue the enjoyment of spirit, have certain requirements of the entertainment industry, catering services and so on.
2. coastal areas still exist bigger difference, income is still a big gap between the
The coastal areas have greatly improved the living standards of farmers at the same time, coastal areas also exist the problem of income gap big, specific data see table 1.
Table 1 the four coastal provinces of income gap between urban and rural areas (unit: yuan)
Beijing city income     Shanghai; Jiangsu; Zhejiang
City residents of 13251.84 14395.80 8738.52
Rural residents' 5398.48 6223.55 3979.79
Income than 2.45:1 2.31:1 2.20:1 2.57:1
Data sources: China Statistical Yearbook 2003, National Bureau of statistics of China, China Statistical Publishing House
From the table data can be seen, the income gap between urban and rural four coastal provinces is still very serious, the smallest gap between Jiangsu province is up to 2.20:1, far more than the 1.70:1 average of developed countries.
Analysis of the main reasons are as follows:
(1). The higher education level is generally lower than the city residents, the knowledge structure of a single, low comprehensive quality to meet the market competition, lack of confidence and ability, can be engaged in some simple physical labor.Four coastal province of urban and rural education gap Table 2
Table 2 the four coastal provinces of urban and rural education (unit: person)
The number of students in Beijing city     Shanghai; Jiangsu; Zhejiang
City   city rural areas; rural   city;
    rural; city; rural
A primary school 269456 137042 354721 32655 906824 4527629 809258
Ordinary high school 118244 25289 160283 5871 285056 992495 283102
The enrollment rate of 0.438825 0.184535 0.451857 0.179789 0.314345 0.219209 0.349829
Data sources: China Statistical Yearbook 2003, National Bureau of statistics of China, China Statistical Publishing House
the results in Table 2 show, the enrollment rate of four coastal provinces of rural students is much lower than the city students, resulting in the overall quality of rural residents is generally lower than the city residents, occupation choice space is very narrow.
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